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21 Table 3-5. Examples of energy and climate change policies that may affect the freight system. Federal State Local/Regional Requirements or subsidies for Requirements or subsidies for Investment and renewable fuels (ethanol, biodiesel) renewable fuels (ethanol, biodiesel) incentives for alternative GHG cap and trade Low-carbon-fuel standard fuel infrastructure and Clean Air Act regulation of GHGs GHG cap and trade vehicles CAFE standards for trucks CA truck fuel efficiency requirements Investment and incentives for Investment and incentives for alternative fuel infrastructure and alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles vehicles Programs and incentives to improve fuel efficiency (e.g., SmartWay) load limits on highways as well as restrictions on truck (CMAQ) Program. The amount of Federal funding and the routing. USACE is directly responsible for operation and types of improvement projects have major implications for maintenance of locks and dams on navigable rivers and for the performance of individual facilities and the freight system channel dredging in rivers and ocean harbors. Local gov- as a whole. The distribution of funding across modes affects ernment policies regarding truck routing and parking affect the costs and performance of each mode and the potential for infrastructure operations, as do local decisions to oppose competition among modes. railroad acquisitions that might increase rail traffic. Local At the state, MPO, and local government level, relevant authorities also control many port and airport operational policy decisions concern the level of investment and project decisions. For example, hours for gate access to ports and for selection. State, MPO, and local decisionmakers lead decisions port operations are often set by local authorities. The Fed- regarding roadway access to freight terminals (e.g., airports, eral truck size-and-weight rules were established in part to seaports, and rail yards). Again, these investment decisions can limit highway pavement damage as well as for highway safety directly affect the performance of the freight system and, reasons. Other Federal and state government safety policies consequently, the cost of freight transport. The modal dis- affect freight system operations--these were discussed under tribution of state and local freight infrastructure investment Safety Policy. Table 3-6 lists examples of infrastructure op- is in part determined by the modal split at the Federal level, erations and maintenance policies that may affect the freight because Federal funding typically requires a local match. system. Table 3-7 lists examples of infrastructure investment policies that may affect the freight system. Infrastructure Investment Policy Infrastructure Finance Policy Federal government policy regarding infrastructure in- vestment includes the level of aid to states for highways and Both the Federal government and states impose fuel taxes direct investment in river and harbor navigation facilities. in order to build, operate, and maintain the highway system. Rarely, the Federal government may provide investment aid States may also adopt other user charges (e.g., tolls) to finance to freight railroads; examples include Federal support for the highways; Federal approval is required for Interstate highways. Alameda Corridor Project and a few rail projects through Other regional authorities, local governments, and private the Congestion Management and Air Quality Improvement facility operators can also set highway and bridge tolls in Table 3-6. Examples of infrastructure operations and maintenance policies that may affect the freight system. Federal State Local/Regional Truck size and weight rules Highway operations and Truck routing restrictions Corps of Engineers maintenance maintenance decisions Truck parking restrictions dredging Enforcement of size-and- Opposition to railroad Corps lock and dam maintenance weight rules acquisitions Corps decisions on water levels and Seasonal load limits on Port and airport operations flows on rivers highways Truck routing restrictions