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34 ment was adopted in 2007.) The rules apply to all trucks that the potential for unexpected impacts is likely higher than operate in California, including those registered in other other types of emission regulations. states. For fleets with four or more vehicles, the regulations re- quire that pre-1994 trucks be installed with exhaust-retrofit Idling Restrictions for Trucks devices beginning in 2010, and these requirements extend to and Locomotives pre-2004 trucks beginning in 2011. The regulation adds compliance flexibility by allowing fleets to choose among Policy Description three compliance options that best suit their situations. Truck idling contributes to air pollution and noise im- Fleets with one to three vehicles are exempt from the 2010 pacts. In response, approximately 15 states, as well as some and 2011 retrofit requirements, but must show partial com- cities, have adopted idling restrictions for trucks.28 Most of pliance by 2013.26 the regulations limit idling to between 5 and 15 minutes, with exceptions in situations such as traffic congestion, extreme Policy Impacts temperature, and service/repair. Fines typically range from $100 to $500, escalating in some jurisdictions for multiple of- The California regulations could have a significant impact fenses. California's law is considered the most restrictive; it on fleets that operate older vehicles. These fleets will be forced prohibits idling for more than 5 minutes within California's to install exhaust-retrofit devices (costing $5,000$20,000) or borders and requires that new trucks be equipped with a non- replace their vehicles sooner than they otherwise would. The programmable system that automatically shuts down the en- California Air Resources Board (CARB) notes that the rules gine after 5 minutes of idling.29 will affect approximately 170,000 businesses and almost a mil- Locomotive idling regulations are much less common. In lion vehicles. Hardest hit will be fleets with four or more trucks 2005, CARB signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) that operate older equipment. Large long-haul carriers, which with the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) and Union typically do not operate trucks more than 4 or 5 years old, will Pacific (UP) railroads that obligates the railroads to signifi- be largely unaffected. California is making available some in- cantly reduce diesel emissions in and around railyards centive funding to assist fleets with compliance throughout California. Under the agreement, UP and BNSF CARB has modeled the economic impacts of the rule.27 agreed to phase out non-essential idling within 6 months and CARB notes install idling reduction devices on all their California-based The total increased cost of the regulation is estimated to be locomotives within 3 years.30 No other state has enforced a lo- $5.5 billion (2008 dollars). While it is expected that most fleets comotive idling law. will pass through these costs to their customers, this is expected to result in a negligible impact on consumers, equating to about a few cent increase for a pair of shoes, less than one one- Policy Impacts hundredth of a cent increase per pound of produce, or an in- crease of from $3 to $10 for a new car. Idling restrictions create an initial cost for carriers if they require the installation of an auxiliary power unit (APU) or other technology in order to comply. APUs cost $7,000 to Unexpected Impacts $10,000, plus installation. Trucks can also be retrofitted with As with the Federal emission standards, California's stan- automatic engine shut-down systems. Some industry experts dards are subject to extensive analysis of potential impacts believe that California's law has had a significant cost impact, through the rulemaking process. CARB has estimated the particularly for carriers that do not rapidly turn over their number of trucks and fleets that will be affected and the cost fleets and have therefore needed to retrofit their trucks with to different types of fleets. CARB also held public meetings shut-down systems. Large long-haul fleets operating in Cali- across the state to receive feedback on their proposed rules; fornia have been purchasing new trucks with the shut-down many trucking industry representatives provided comments. systems at minimal additional cost. The in-use truck rules have not yet taken effect, so the extent Carriers benefit from fuel savings when they reduce idling. to which CARB's predicted impacts are accurate is not known. For this reason, most large carriers, as well as the American Because an emission regulation of this type is unprecedented, 28American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI), Compendium of Idling Regulations, updated 2005. 26 29For information, see: http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/truck-idling/truck-idling. A full description of the proposed regulations can be found at: www.arb.ca.gov/ msprog/onrdiesel/onrdiesel.htm htm 27 30For information, see: http://www.arb.ca.gov/railyard/ryagreement/ryagreement. CARB, "Cost Model Methodology for the Statewide Truck & Bus Regulation," July 2, 2008. htm