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C-1 APPENDIX C Bibliography of Canadian Truck Size and Weight Research ADI Ltd. (1993), "Use of Wide Base Single Tires on Heavy Applied Research Associates Inc (2007), "Estimation of Road Trucks," Ontario Ministry of Transportation. Cost Allocation between Light Vehicles and Heavy Vehi- ADI Ltd. (1994), "Economic Impact Study: Bulk Commod- cles in Canada," Transport Canada. ity Program," Saskatchewan Department of Highways Barton R. and Logistics Solution Builders Inc (2006), "Estima- and Transportation. tion of Costs of Heavy Vehicle Use per Vehicle-kilometer Agarwal A. C. (1978), "Vehicle Weight Regulations across in Canada," Transport Canada, Report TP14662E. Canada: A Technical Review with Respect to the Capac- Barton R., and Nix F. P. (2000), "Ontario Freight Transporta- ity of Highway Systems," Ontario Ministry of Trans- tion System Study," Transport Canada. portation and Communications, Report RR 214. Barton R., et al. (1989), "Impact of Heavy Vehicles on Agarwal A. C. et al. (1997), "Impact on the Highway Infra- Saskatchewan's Low Strength Roads," Proceedings of Sec- structure of Existing and Alternative Vehicle Configura- ond International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights tions and Weight Limits," Ontario Ministry of Trans- and Dimensions. portation, Report ONT-97-01, May 1997. Bedard J. (1986), "Vehicle Rollover Threshold Evaluation: An Agarwal A. C., and Billing J. R. (1986), "The Effect of Ontario's Assessment of Computer Simulation Models," CCMTA/ Weight Regulations on Commercial Vehicle Design," Pro- RTAC Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Study Technical ceedings of International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Report, Volume 12, Roads and Transportation Associa- Weights and Dimensions, Kewlona, British Columbia. tion of Canada. Al-Qadi I. L., Elsefi M., and Yoo P. J. (2004), "Pavement Bein P. et al. (1989), "Relevance of HDM3 Road User Cost Damage Due to Different Tires and Vehicle Configura- Model to Canadian Heavy Vehicles," Proceedings of Sec- tions," Virginia Tech Transportation Institute. ond International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights Amlin E. (1991), "Rollover Stability of Log-hauling Vehicles," and Dimensions, Kelowna, British Columbia. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada, Report Billing A. M. (1982), "Rollover Tests of Double Trailer Com- SR-000105. binations," Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Com- Amlin E., and Bradley A. H. (1992), "Variable Tire Pressure munications, Report TVS-CV-82-114. Control for Log-Hauling Vehicles," Heavy Vehicles and Billing J. R., and Lam C. P. (1989), "Stability and Control Roads: Technology, Safety and Policy, pp. 439441. Characteristics of Straight Trucks and Truck Trailer Amlin E., and Marshall N. (1989), "Tridem Axle Evaluations Combinations" Proceedings of Second International for Logging Trucks," Proceedings of Second Interna- Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, tional Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Di- Kelowna, British Columbia. mensions, Kelowna, British Columbia. Billing J. R. (1986), "Comparison of Simulation and tests of Amlin E., Klawer P., and Hart D. V. (1995), "Evaluation of a Baseline and Tractor-Semitrailer Vehicles," CCMTA/ Tridem Drive Tractor for Log Transportation," Forest RTAC Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Study Technical Engineering Research Institute of Canada, Report TR- Report, Volume 5, Roads and Transportation Association 000123. of Canada. Applied Research Associates Inc (2006), "Estimation of the Billing J. R. (1986), "Demonstration Test Program: Five, Six Representative Annualized Capital and Maintenance and Seven Axle Tractor Semitrailers," CCMTA/RTAC Ve- Costs of Roads by Functional Class," Transport Canada. hicle Weights and Dimensions Study Technical Report,

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C-2 Volume 4, Roads and Transportation Association of tion Research Record 1052, TRB, National Research Coun- Canada. cil, pp. 116119. Billing J. R. (1986), "Demonstration Test Program: Summary Billing J. R., and Patten J. D. (2003), "Performance of Infra- of Tests of Baseline Vehicle Performance," CCMTA/ structure-friendly Vehicles" National Research Council RTAC Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Study Technical of Canada, Report CSTT-HVC-TR-058. Report, Volume 3, Roads and Transportation Association Billing, A. M. (1979), "Tests of Self-steering Trailer Axles," of Canada. Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communica- Billing J. R. (1986), "Heavy Truck Testing for the Canadian tions, Report CVOS-TR-79-02. Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Study," Proceedings of Blair C. (2001), "Evaluation of a Log B-train Configuration International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and for Regulatory Approval in Alberta," Forest Engineering Dimensions, Kewlona, British Columbia. Research Institute of Canada, Advantage Report, Vol. 4, Billing J. R. (1986), "Hitch Slack and Drawbar Length Effects No. 16. on C-train Stability and Handling," CCMTA/RTAC Vehi- Blair C. (2001), "Evaluation of a Tridem Drive Tractor with cle Weights and Dimensions Study Technical Report, Vol- a Long Log B-train," Forest Engineering Research Insti- ume 6, Roads and Transportation Association of Canada. tute of Canada, Advantage Report, Vol. 4, No. 10. Billing J. R. (1992), "A Discussion of Performance Standards Blow P., Woodrooffe J., and Sweatman P. (1998), "Vehicle for Configuration of Heavy Trucks," Proceedings of Third Stability and Control Research for US Comprehensive International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Truck Size and Weight (TSandW) Study," SAE Inter- Dimensions, Cambridge, England. national Truck and Bus Meeting and Exposition, Billing J. R. (1995), "Implementation of Vehicle Weight and Indianapolis. Dimension Regulations" Proceedings of Fourth Inter- Bowland J. M., and Friend R. G. (1994), "Economic Impact national Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and of Introducing Longer Trailers in Ontario," Proceedings Dimensions. of the CTRF Annual Conference. Billing J. R. (2002), "A Field Assessment of Tank Truck Roll Bowland J. M. et al. (1993), "Economic Impact of Introduc- Stability," Transport Canada Report TP13908E. ing 53 ft Semi-Trailers and 25 metre B-Trains in On- Billing J. R. (2002), "Characteristics of Cross-border Truck- tario," Ontario Ministry of Transportation. ing in Central Canada," Transport Canada. Bradley A. H. (1996), "Trial of a Central Tire Inflation Sys- Billing J. R. (2002), "Stability and Handling Characteristics of tem on Thawing Forest Roads," Forest Engineering Re- a Straight Truck with a Self-steering Pusher Axle," National search Institute of Canada, Report TR-000116. Research Council Canada, Report CSTT-HVC-TR-057. Bradley A. H. (1997), "The Effect of Reduced Tire Inflation Billing J. R. and Patten J. D. (2004), "Full-scale Performance Pressures on Road Damage: a Literature Review," Forest Testing of 5-axle Semitrailers." National Research Coun- Engineering Research Institute of Canada, Report cil of Canada, Report CSTT-HVC-TR-084. SR-000123. Billing J. R. and Patten J. D. (2005), "An Assessment of Tank Bradley A. H. (2003), "Using Optimized Truck Tire Pressures Truck Roll Stability," Transport Canada Report TP14237E. to Minimize Damage to Rural Roads: Summary of Two Billing J. R. et al. (1983), "Tests of a B-Train Converter Trials in Saskatchewan," Forest Engineering Research In- Dolly," Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Commu- stitute of Canada, Advantage Report, Vol. 2, No. 51. nications Report TVS-CV-82-111. Bradley A. H., (2005), "Using Road-Friendly Technologies Billing J. R. et al. (1991), "On the Use of Liftable Axles by Heavy to Carry Full Legal Axle Weights on Seasonally Weight- Trucks," In Transportation Research Record 1313, TRB, restricted Pavements in British Columbia," Forest Engi- National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 1100. neering Research Institute of Canada, Advantage Report, Billing J. R., and Lam C. P. (1989), "Development of Regula- Vol. 6, No. 31. tory Principles for Multi-Axle Semitrailers," Proceedings BulkPlus Logistics (2002), "Operating Costs of Trucks in of Second International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Canada 2002," Transport Canada. Weights and Dimensions, Kelowna, British Columbia. Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators. "1999 Billing J. R., and Lam C. P. (1992), "Development of Regula- National Roadside Study." tory Principles for Straight Trucks and Truck-trailer Com- Canadian Standards Association (2000), "Canadian Highway binations," Proceedings of Third International Symposium Bridge Design Code," CAN/CSA-S6-00. on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, Cambridge, CCMTA/RTAC Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Study England. (1987), "Recommended Regulatory Principles for Inter- Billing J. R., and Mercer W. R. (1986), "Swept Paths of Large provincial Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions," Im- Trucks in Right Turns of Small Radius," In Transporta- plementation Committee Report.

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C-3 Center de recherche industrielle du Qubec (1994), "Final Clayton A., Nix F. P., and Fekpe E. (1992), "Enforcement and Rreport on the Follow-up on Self-steering Axles," Trans- Overweight Trucking," Canadian Transportation Research port Canada, Report TP12252E. Forum. Cherwenuk A. D. (1989), "Designing the Highway System to Clayton A. M. and Fekpe E. (1993), "A Rational Approach Accommodate Very Large Trucks," Proceedings of Sec- to Predicting Pavement Loading," Proceedings from the ond International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights Canadian Society for Civil Engineering Annual Confer- and Dimensions, Kelowna, British Columbia. ence, Vol. 3, pp. 597606. Christison J., and Shields B. (1978), "Evaluation of the Rela- Clayton A. M. et al. (1983), "Truck Industry Technological tive Damaging Effects of Wide Base Tire Loads on Pave- Response to the Western Canada Highway Strengthening ments," Alberta Research Council Contribution Series Program," Proceedings of Roads and Transportation As- #1029, pp. D27-D46. sociation of Canada Annual Conference. Christison J. T. (1986), "Pavement Response to Heavy Truck Clayton A. M., and Fekpe E. (1994), "Model for Trucking Axle Loadings: The Canadian Vehicle Weights and Di- Productivity Analysis of Alternative Weight Limits," Pro- mensions Study," Proceedings of International Symposium ceedings IRF Regional Meeting, Calgary, Vol. 5, pp. 15-25. on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, Kewlona, Clayton A. M., and Fekpe E. (1994), "Quantitative Assess- British Columbia. ment of Effect of Enforcement Intensity on Violation Christison J. T. (1986), "Pavements Response to Bump In- Rates of Vehicle Weight and Dimension Regulations," duced Axle Loads: Experimental Findings," CCMTA/ Transportation Planning and Technology, Vol. 18, No. 2, RTAC Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Study Technical pp. 143153. Report, Volume 10, Roads and Transportation Associa- Clayton A. M., and Nix F. P. (1983), "Vehicle Weight and Di- tion of Canada. mension Regulations Governing Trucking in Canada," Christison J. T. (1986), "Pavements Response to Heavy Vehi- University of Toronto-York University Joint Program in cle Test Program--Part 1, Data Summary Report," Transportation. CCMTA/RTAC Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Study Clayton A. M., and Nix F. P. (1986), "Effects of Weight and Technical Report, Volume 8, Roads and Transportation Dimension Regulations: Evidence from Canada," In Association of Canada. Transportation Research Record 1061, TRB, National Christison J. T. (1986), "Pavements Response to Heavy Vehi- Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 4249. cle Test Program--Part 2, Load Equivalency Factors," Clayton A. M., Robinson J., and Fekpe E. (1992), "Pavement CCMTA/RTAC Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Study Loads and Truck Weight Limits: Canadian Experience," Technical Report, Volume 9, Roads and Transportation Heavy Vehicles and Roads: Technology, Safety and Policy, Association of Canada. Christison J. T., and Woodrooffe J. (1989), "Dynamic Axle pp. 309315. Loads and Pavement Response," Second International Clayton, Sparks and Associates Ltd. (1994), "A Feasibility Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, Study to Determine the Safety Performance of A- and Kelowna, British Columbia. C-Train Combination Vehicles," American Trucking Clark M., and Phillips E. (1989), "On Board Truck Weigh Association Foundation. Scales," Proceedings of Second International Symposium Coles Associates and Nix F. P. (2000), "Atlantic Provinces on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, Kelowna, Surface Freight Transportation System Study," Transport British Columbia. Canada. Clark M. L. (1988), "Static Roll Stability Evaluations of Long- Corbin G., Grandbois J., and Richard M. J. (1995), "Evalua- log Trucks," Forest Engineering Research Institute of tion of Self-Steering Axles for Semi-Trailers," Proceed- Canada, Report TN-000124. ings of Fourth International Symposium on Heavy Vehi- Clayton A. and Fekpe E. (1994), "Estimating Pavement Load- cle Weights and Dimensions. ing in Terms of Weight Limit and Enforcement Inten- Delisle G. (1986), "Investigating Articulated Vehicle Roll sity," Proceedings of CSCE Annual Conference, Vol. 1, Stability Using a Tilt Table Device," Proceedings of Inter- pp. 639648. national Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Clayton A. and Nix F. P. (1995), "Trucking Under the NAFTA: Dimensions, Kewlona, British Columbia. Size and Weight Options," Proceedings of Fourth Inter- Dore G. (2003), "Modelling of Loading Applied to Pavement national Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and by Various Types of Tires," Ministre des Transports du Dimensions. Qubec. Clayton A., and Fekpe E. S. K. (1995), "Prediction of Heavy- Dore G., Drouin P., Pierre P., and Desrochers P. (2005), "Es- Vehicle Weight Distributions," ASCE, Journal of Trans- timation of the Relationships of Road Deterioration to portation Engineering, Vol. 121, No. 2. Traffic and Weather in Canada," Transport Canada.

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C-5 for Interprovincial Trucking," Roads and Transportation Mercer W., and Stephenson W. (1986), "Development of a Association of Canada. Mobile Tire Test Dynamometer and Tests of Three IBI Group and ADI Ltd. (1994), "Impacts of Canada's Heavy Truck Tires," Proceedings of International Symposium on Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Research and Inter- Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, Kewlona, British provincial Agreement: Final Report," Transportation Columbia. Association of Canada and Canadian Trucking Research Ministere des Transports du Qubec (2000), "Harmonization Institute. of Vehicle Load and Size Limits: Agreement in Principle Irwin N. A., and Barton R. A. (1987), "Economics of Truck between Qubec and Ontario," INFO Camionnage Sizes and Weights in Canada," Council on Highway and Newsletter 03.08.00. Transportation Research and Development and the Morrall J., and Werner A. (1989), "Analysis of Traffic Opera- Roads and Transportation Association of Canada. tions for the Movement of Very Large Vehicles on the Jones J., Nix F. P., and Schwier C. (1990), "The Impact of High-Wide Corridor between Edmonton and Ft. Changes in Road User Charges on Canadian Railways," McMurray," Proceedings of Second International Sym- Transport Canada. posium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, Khan A. M. et al. (1991), "Cost-effectiveness of Passing Kelowna, British Columbia. Lanes: Safety, Level of Service, and Cost Factors," Ontario Nix F. P. (1987), "Study of Vehicle Weight and Dimension Ministry of Transportation, R and D Branch, Report Regulations and Canada's Trucking Industry: Final Re- TDS-91-02. port," Transport Canada, Report TP8480E. Khan A. M., Wong J. Y. and Rastogi M. (1990), "Heavy Ve- Nix F. P. (1990), "Potential Impact on Canada of Proposed hicle Performance on Grade and Climbing Lane Crite- New ISO Standards for Large International Freight ria," Ontario Ministry of Transportation, R and D Branch, Containers," Transport Canada Report TP10192E. Report TDS-90-11. Nix F. P. (1991), "Trucks and Energy Use: A Review of the Literature and the Data in Canada," Ontario Trucking Lam C. P. (1986), "Comparison of Simulation and Test Association. Results for Various Truck Combination Configura- Nix F. P. (1992), "The Impact of Weight and Dimension Reg- tions," Proceedings of International Symposium on ulations on Trucking," National Transportation Act Re- Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, Kewlona, British view Commission, Ottawa, Canada. Columbia. Nix F. P. (1995), "Long Truck Activity in Canada," Canadian LeBlanc P. A., and Woodrooffe J. H. (1995), "Spatial Corre- Trucking Research Institute. lation of Dynamic Wheel Loads," Proceedings of Fourth Nix F. P. (1996), "The Trucking Industry in Canada: A Pro- International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and file," Canadian Trucking Research Institute. Dimensions. Nix F. P. (1996), "Weight and Dimension Regulations: Har- LeBlanc P. A., El-Gindy M. and Woodrooffe J. (1989), "Self- monization of Standards under NAFTA: Industry Per- Steering Axles: Theory and Practice," SAE Paper 891633. spective," Transport Canada. Vancouver, British Columbia. Nix F. P. (1998), "Trucking in Canada: A Profile," Canadian LeBlanc P. A., Woodrooffe J., and Papagiannakis A. T. Trucking Research Institute. (1992), "A Comparison of the Accuracy of Two Types of Nix F. P. (2003), "Truck Activity in Canada: A Profile," Instrumentation for Measuring Vertical Wheel Load," Transport Canada, Report TP14164E. Third International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Nix F. P. and Clayton A. M. (1986), "Assessing the Impact of Weights and Dimensions, Cambridge, England. Weight and Dimension Regulations: Methodological LeBlanc P. A. et al. (1987), "Effect of Heavy Vehicle Suspen- Considerations," Proceedings of International Sympo- sion Nonlinearities on Pavement Loading," Tenth Inter- sium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, Kewlona, national Association of Vehicle System Dynamics, Prague, British Columbia. Czech Republic. Nix F. P. et al. (1996), "Assessment of the Impact of Changes Little G. et al. (1997), "1995 Commercial Vehicle Survey," On- in Vehicle Configurations on Ontario's Industry," On- tario Ministry of Transportation Report TDRO-95-03. tario Ministry of Transportation. Logistics Solution Builders Inc (2005), "Operating Costs of Nix F. P., and Boucher M. (1988), "Long Combination Vehi- Trucks in Canada 2005," Transport Canada. cles in Qubec and Ontario," Transport Canada. Logistics Solution Builders Inc. (2003), "Operating Costs of Nix F. P., and Boucher M. (1991), "Economics of Liftable Trucks in Canada 2003," Transport Canada. Axles," Ontario Ministry of Transportation. McFarlane S. et al. (1997), "The Correlation of Heavy Vehicle Nix F. P., and Delaquis M. (1995), "Long Combination Ve- Performance Measures," SAE Truck and Bus Meeting, hicle Operations in Canada" Proceedings of Canadian Cleveland. Transportation Research Forum.

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