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21 The allowable gross weight of a vehicle is the sum of its The same self-steer quad as Qubec; allowable axle loads, though the gross weight of an A-train A self-steer tri-axle semitrailer, as shown in Figure 21, with double is capped at 53,500 kg, the weight on a full trailer is 27,000 or 28,650 kg (59,524 or 63,162 lb) on the tri-axle, capped, and depending on the configuration, the combined depending on whether the self-steering axle has single or weight on the lead trailer axle group and the converter dolly dual tires; of an A- or C-train double is limited if the inter-axle spacing 5-axle semitrailers, as seen in Figure 22 and Figure 23, with is less than 3.0 m (118 in.), and a tridem pony trailer is 37,500 kg (82,672 lb) on the five axles on the semitrailer, restricted to a maximum axle spread of 2.5 m (98 in.). and the liftable self-steering axles must carry the same load The full text of the 2008 version of the M.o.U. is presented as each fixed axle; in Appendix A. 6-axle semitrailers, similar to those seen in Figure 22 and Figure 23, and intended for operation between Ontario and Michigan, with a quadruple axle group instead of a tri- 2.2.2 Size and Weight Limits of dem, and an allowed 39,000 kg (85,979 lb) on the semi- the Provinces and Territories trailer axles; and Each province and territory has either adopted each M.o.U. A tridem drive tractor, which may pull any M.o.U. semi- vehicle configuration into its regulations, or has adapted its trailer, or a self-steer tri-axle or self-steer quad semitrailer. regulations so that a vehicle meeting the specification of the M.o.U. can operate within the province or territory on a road Alberta and British Columbia allow a wide range of special- network specified by the respective province or territory. A ized log-haul configurations, with two examples shown in province and territory may allow other configurations not Figure 19 and Figure 20. covered by the M.o.U., either as new vehicles, or as existing vehicles grandfathered from a previous set of regulations, 2.2.3 LCV Operations by regulation, or by special permit. A province or territory may allow less restrictive values for certain limits set in the Longer combination vehicles (LCVs) in Canada tend to M.o.U.--generally higher for a weight limit, shorter for a be longer and heavier than those found in the United States. minimum dimension, longer for a maximum dimension--or Turnpike Double LCVs are allowed by special permit in may not regulate a particular limit at all. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Qubec, New The truck size and weight regulations of the provinces and Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Rocky Mountain doubles are territories are summarized in a series of tables in Appendix B, allowed by special permit in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Mani- according to the M.o.U. configurations. These tables present toba, and Qubec. Triples are allowed by special permit in the regulated limits for new vehicles. They do not address Alberta and Saskatchewan. A wide variety of specialized equip- other configurations that may be allowed by regulation or by ment is allowed by special permit in Alberta to support the oil special permit. These tables are necessarily a summary, and and gas industries. Saskatchewan allows a number of larger the values given for some of the weights are the typical max- and heavier configurations by special permit, including the imum and may depend on certain dimensions having a min- innovative program described below. imum value, or other conditions. In some cases it may be Studies have shown (87), (88), (89) that the safety perform- theoretically possible to achieve a higher weight than shown, ance of LCVs operating under special permit in Canada has but such vehicles are rare or unknown. been very encouraging when compared with tractor semi- The four western provinces, and the four Atlantic Provinces, trailers. Turnpike doubles have the lowest crash rate of all have all adopted the M.o.U. as their form of regulation, though LCVs, between 2.5 and 5 times less than standard tractor semi- the Atlantic Provinces allow 18,000 kg (39,682 lb) on a tandem trailers (87), (88), (89), (90). LCVs also have significant envi- axle, and 26,000 kg (57,320 lb) for a tridem axle with a spread ronmental benefits due to the improved efficiency of the from 3.6 to 3.7 m (142 to 146 in.). Ontario and Qubec have vehicles. Fuel consumption, CO2, and NOx emissions are adopted M.o.U. configurations into their regulations, and also reduced by about 30% when tractor trailers are replaced with allow 18,000 kg (39,682 lb) on a tandem axle, and 26,000 kg LCV operations (87), (88), (91). (57,320 lb) for a tridem axle with a spread from 3.6 to 3.7 m (142 to 146 in.). 2.2.4 A Novel LCV Special Permit System Qubec allows a self-steer quad semitrailer, as shown in Figure 18, with 34,000 kg (74,956 lb) on the 4 axles on the Saskatchewan, in 1977, became the first jurisdiction in North semitrailer. The self-steering axle, which is usually liftable, is America to use truck weight and dimension policy as an eco- required to carry the same load as each of the fixed axles. nomic development tool. The Bulk Commodity Policy enabled Ontario allows industry to use trucks with weights and/or dimensions that