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23 health and social services, property and civil rights, provincial Canada, and it has from time to time become involved as a and municipal courts and municipal institutions. Schools are funding partner in highway transportation projects that were generally run by school boards or commissions elected under evidently a common interest of the provinces. provincial education acts. Some areas of responsibility are shared by both levels of gov- 2.3.4 Role of Provincial Governments ernment. For example, in the area of transportation, the fed- in Truck Transportation eral government has jurisdiction in matters involving move- ment across provincial or international borders (aviation, Canada's provinces and territories have always been respon- marine transport and rail), whereas the provinces look after sible for all matters relating to roads, road safety, driver licens- provincial highways, vehicle registration and driver licensing. ing, vehicle registration and taxation, and commercial vehi- Control over agriculture, immigration and certain aspects of cle regulations and enforcement. The provinces and territories natural resource management are also shared. If federal and are also responsible for motor carriers and vehicles in inter- provincial laws conflict in an area of shared responsibility, the provincial and international operation, under authority del- federal law prevails. egated by the federal government in 1954. The three territorial governments, Yukon Territory, North- Each province and territory funds and controls design, west Territories, and Nunavut, have responsibilities similar to construction, maintenance and management of the highways the provinces but do not control land or natural resources. within its borders, set limits on vehicle size and weight, and Their powers are not guaranteed by the Constitution, but are licenses and controls drivers, vehicles and the transportation granted by the federal government, which can change them companies that use its highways. when it is considered necessary. 2.3.5 Intergovernmental Coordination 2.3.3 Role of the Government of Canada Each province and territory is sovereign within its bound- in Truck Transportation aries, but they have common transportation interests, so there The federal government has overall responsibility for high- is a need to coordinate policies and practices relating to these way safety and for interprovincial and international transporta- interests. The primary means of coordination is through tion. The federal government is responsible for road safety, the Council of Ministers Responsible for Highway Transporta- standards for new and imported vehicles, and transportation tion and Safety (55), which is supported by the CCMTA (58). of dangerous goods. The federal government delegated respon- The Council of Ministers Responsible for Transportation sibility for interprovincial and international highway trans- and Highway Safety comprises the federal, provincial and ter- portation to the provinces and territories in 1954. ritorial ministers with these responsibilities (55). The Coun- The federal government directly funds and maintains a cil directly sponsors a range of policy studies, including those small number of interprovincial and international bridges, relating to national highway policy (59), (60). The Council is and also funds roads and bridges on federal lands such as supported by the Council of Deputy Ministers Responsible national parks and military bases. It also provides funding for for Transportation and Highway Safety, which comprises the other highway and infrastructure projects under a succession senior federal, provincial and territorial civil servants report- of medium- and longer-term programs since the late 1960s, ing to each minister on the Council of Ministers. The Council and has explicitly provided ongoing funding for cooperative of Deputy Ministers sponsors four programs: the Engineering highway projects on the National Highway System since 2002. and Research Support Committee, the Policy and Planning Canada has a national highway network, but the highways Support Committee, the Task Force on Vehicle Weights and that make up that system are designated by the Council of Dimensions Policy, and the Canadian Council of Motor Ministers, and there are explicit criteria that must be met. Transport Administrators. The Council of Ministers meets Decisions on additions or deletions to the network require annually to deal with issues addressed to it by the Council of federal, provincial, and territorial consensus. Deputy Ministers. The federal government sets standards for new and imported The TAC is a national, nonprofit organization with pri- vehicles, in the same way as the National Highway Traffic mary interest in development of engineering guidelines and Safety Administration in the United States. The federal gov- best practices in the highway transportation sector used by ernment has no control over truck size and weight, so there all governments (57) and its mandate precludes addressing are no federal regulations that govern truck size and weight. management or policy issues, or taking advocacy positions. Nevertheless, the federal government does have an overall TAC began in 1914 as the Canadian Good Roads Association, interest in the efficiency of the transportation system in founded to promote the establishment of a superior national