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25 2.3.8 Passing Law and Regulations fees, etc., goes into the treasury. The federal government in Canada collects substantial revenue from taxes on fuel, vehicles, and equipment. The provincial governments also collect sub- There are no federal size and weight rules in Canada, so each stantial revenue from the same sources, plus license and reg- province must take the steps necessary to enact agreed changes istration fees, fines, and other sources. These funds all go into their own regulations. This section outlines in general into general revenue and are disbursed to departments in terms the procedures necessary for a change to the law and accordance with budget allocations. There are a few exam- regulations in a province or territory. The procedures may ples of dedicated funding of federal infrastructure programs, vary somewhat between jurisdictions. such as 5 cents of the 10 cents federal excise tax on motor fuels In general, the Council of Ministers can agree that each is permanently dedicated for use by municipalities ($2.5 bil- member should proceed with an initiative set before it. How- lion per year) and British Columbia has a dedicated tax of ever, a minister cannot undertake the implantation of an ini- tiative that is agreed upon at a meeting of the Council. The 12 cents/liter that is applied to fuel sales in the lower main- ministers must take the initiative back to their own jurisdic- land for use by the TransLink (the regional transportation tion for analysis and review, then for development of the nec- agency); this 12 cents/liter tax generates close to $300 mil- essary law and/or regulations. The result must be approved lion per year. by cabinet, or a committee of cabinet. The initiative must The provinces do, of course, evaluate the costs and bene- then compete for time on the legislative and regulatory agenda, fits of proposed changes to size and weight regulations. How- which is determined by the government. ever, the provinces do not adjust tax rates or fees as a conse- A proposal for a new regulation or an amendment to an quence of any changes. Such adjustments are almost always existing regulation must go through cabinet as well. If the made when a provincial Ministry of Finance identifies a need proposal is approved, department and legislative council staff for more revenue. A Ministry of Transportation may decide develop the regulation. Department staff may consult stake- which fees are to be changed, and by how much, to ensure holders for their views on the proposed subject of regulation, they contribute their allocated share of the additional rev- either in open or private meetings, or by asking for written enue. Thus, in Canada, there is no debate about who pays, or submissions, but they need not do any of these things. Once who benefits, when changes in truck size and weight regula- the regulation is developed, it is reviewed by a committee tions are considered. composed of members of the legislature in a meeting where department staff may be questioned on details of the regula- 2.4 Compile Literature tion. Once approved, the regulation is published in the provin- cial gazette (some provinces have mandatory consultation with All relevant published literature, research in progress, and stakeholders as part of the gazette process). It goes into force current practice on the subject of Canadian truck size and when filed, or on a date specified in the regulation. In most weight was compiled. This task focused principally on work provinces, the exact text of a proposed regulation is not pub- since 1983, though a few earlier documents of particular his- lished for public comment but is confidential until the regu- torical significance are included. lation is passed and published. The results have been categorized by the impact of changes It is much easier to make or amend a regulation than it is in size and weight limits in Canada on key issues, such as the to amend legislation. Since provincial size and weight rules following: have become both highly technical and complex, and most changes since introduction of the M.o.U. in 1988 have been Safety, matters of detail, it has been much easier for provinces to Productivity, introduce amendments agreed by the Task Force and ratified Pavement impacts, by the Council of Ministers since the rules have been in reg- Bridge impacts, ulation. This has also helped keep the various provincial rules Modal shift, relatively closely synchronized. Environmental impacts, Changes in truck fleet design and configuration, Traffic congestion and roadway capacity, 2.3.9 Taxation and Financing Public perception, and All levels of government in Canada operate under consoli- Impacts on trucking operations or regulations in U.S. dated revenue. Virtually all revenue, whether from taxes, duties, border states.