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27 These events caused changes to carriers, the amount of of trips varied from 29.44% in the Atlantic Provinces to 51.90% freight, and freight flows that affected the truck fleet size of the in Manitoba and 45.62% in Ontario, reflecting regional differ- preferred configurations. As each occurred essentially simul- ences in freight and routes. The T12-12 is a general purpose taneously, it was rather difficult to disaggregate the effects of vehicle for carriage of payloads of moderate and low density the M.o.U. from these other effects. However, it is probably and is fully compatible with the U.S. Interstate system. Tandem likely that the entry and growth of new, agile carriers acceler- semitrailers were also towed by a tractor with a single drive axle ated the introduction of M.o.U. configurations into the fleet. (T11-2), which was the ninth most common configuration, The railways were opposed to the M.o.U. as a matter of making up 1.42% of all trips. principle. However, the railways tend to move bulk and heavy Two- and 3-axle straight trucks (S11 and S12) were the sec- freight over long distances, and trucks move anything over ond and fourth most common configurations, and made short and medium distances. Since the M.o.U., the railways 16.44 and 6.20% of all trips in Canada, respectively. These are have made substantial changes, acquiring U.S. lines, aban- primarily local use vehicles in both urban and rural areas. doning unprofitable branch lines in Canada, sharing track, The tractor-tridem semitrailer (T12-3) and tri-axle semi- and developing intermodal service into the single fastest trailer (T12-12) were the third and sixth most common con- growing transportation sector. Interestingly, the railways figurations, respectively, and together they made 13.70% of were actually the largest single early purchasers of new M.o.U. all trips in Canada. Together these configurations made about configurations, buying one standard design of container chas- 12% to 16% of all trips in the four western provinces and sis for all their terminals across the country. Qubec, about 10% in Ontario, and just over 28% in the At- lantic Provinces. These are general purpose configurations for payloads of moderate weight. The tridem semitrailer has 3.2 Changes in Truck Fleets three equally spaced load-sharing axles, while the tri-axle semi- 3.2.1 Domestic Fleet, 1999 trailer has a single liftable axle mounted ahead of a tandem axle group. Tridem semitrailers did not exist in the four west- The 1999 National Roadside Survey provides a wealth of ern provinces prior to the M.o.U., but now clearly are an im- detailed insight into the truck fleet in Canada (65). The data- portant configuration. Tridem semitrailers were legal in the base contains information on truck configurations, weights, six eastern provinces prior to the M.o.U., but were not com- dimensions, payloads, and trips from a survey conducted on mon as the tri-axle semitrailer had a higher allowable gross the National Highway System, in addition to significant links. weight. The lower proportion of tridem semitrailers in On- It provides a good national view of trucking on major high- tario and Qubec is partly due to the tri-axle semitrailers that ways but may significantly underestimate local trips in and were operating prior to the M.o.U., particularly in specialized around urban areas, and in rural areas. body styles like tank and dump applications, and also partly A total of 311 distinct vehicle configurations were found due to the availability of quad-axle semitrailers and 5- and during the 1999 National Roadside Survey (65). Table 1 pres- 6-axle semitrailers in Ontario, which allow even higher pay- ents the breakdown of these. All possible M.o.U. configura- loads. All six eastern provinces have now set schedules to tions of straight truck, tractor, and tractor-semitrailer were phase out tri-axle semitrailers, and these vehicles will gradu- found, but only 12 of 14 possible truck-trailer combinations, ally disappear over the next 15 years or so, though the self- six of eight possible A-train configurations, six of 12 possible steer tri-axle recently allowed in Ontario may continue to B-train configurations, and five of eight possible C-train con- serve a niche market in that province. figurations, were found. The 8-axle B-train (T12-3-B2) is the principal vehicle for The tractor-tandem semitrailer (T12-2) was the most com- heavy haul across Canada. It was the fifth most common con- mon configuration in all provinces, by a wide margin, and figuration, and made 5.45% of all trips. This configuration made up 40.05% of all truck trips in Canada. The proportion made about 8% of trips in British Columbia, 14% to 17% in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, only just over 3% in Table 1. Number of configurations. Ontario and Qubec, and 10% in the Atlantic Provinces. It is clearly the vehicle of choice for heavy haul in the four west- Configuration Top 35 All M.o.U. ern provinces and in the four eastern provinces, where it did Straight Truck 4 12 2 Bobtail Tractor 1 4 2 not exist prior to the M.o.U. The proportion is low in Ontario Tractor-semitrailer 18 106 6 because many carriers have opted for a 5- or 6-axle semi- Truck-trailer 5 53 10 trailer over an 8-axle B-train. The allowable gross weight and A-train 5 61 6 B-train 2 57 6 overall length of this B-train was restricted in Qubec for C-train 0 18 5 routes off freeways, and consequently it offered little benefit Total 35 311 37 for most carriers over the quad-axle semitrailer.