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28 The quad or self-steer quad semitrailer (T12-13) was ating new configurations, though their numbers are probably adopted by Qubec as a heavy haul vehicle in 1991. It is also still quite small. commonly used between Ontario and Qubec, and some are Ontario began restrictions on new tri-axle semitrailers in also operating by permit in New Brunswick. It can also travel 2001, and the first stage of gross weight reduction began in as a tridem semitrailer in other provinces if its liftable axle is 2006 (52). The self-steer tri-axle semitrailer was introduced raised. The quad was the seventh most common configura- into regulation, but this has seen limited uptake, essentially tion, responsible for 4.56% of all trips. It is the principal heavy only with an end-dump body. Semitrailers that without these haul semitrailer in Qubec, where it was responsible for restrictions would have been tri-axle vans either became tri- 11.95% of all trips, and is also significant in Ontario where it dem, quad or self-steer quad semitrailers. The numbers of tri- was responsible for 3.02% of all trips. axle van semitrailers will gradually diminish through 2010. The bobtail tandem tractor was the eighth most common Cryogenic and other high-value tri-axle semitrailers used for configuration, responsible for 2.50% of all trips. transportation of compressed gas may remain in service until The pusher (or tri-axle) straight truck (S112) was the tenth 2021, but any new equipment will either be a tridem, self- most common configuration, responsible for 1.06% of all steer quad or M.o.U. B-train. Thus, as the proportion of the trips. This is essentially an Ontario configuration, where it tri-axle semitrailer fleet diminishes, the proportions of the al- made 1.89% of all trips, but was also found in Qubec and the ternative configurations will increase. Semitrailers with more Atlantic Provinces, where it can operate with its liftable axle than three axles must meet Ontario's SPIF requirements from raised as a three-axle straight truck. The single axle is com- 2006, and gross weight reductions for existing non-SPIF monly a rigid liftable axle, though some of these vehicles are multi-axle semitrailers begin in 2016 (52). This has had little fitted with a self-steering axle that does not need to be lifted impact to date. It will ultimately cause a transition from about when the vehicle makes a turn. a dozen existing 4-, 5- and 6-axle semitrailer configurations The M.o.U. introduced the tridem semitrailer and the 8-axle to the five specified SPIF configurations. It will also greatly re- B-train, and these are now the third and fifth most common duce the number of pure Michigan configurations seen in configurations across Canada. The impact is more striking in Ontario. Michigan and Ontario carriers that operate pure the four western provinces because these provinces have all Michigan configurations will either have to transition to the adopted the M.o.U. as their form of regulation in 1989. Change two 6-axle SPIF configurations provided, add liftable axles to was inhibited in the six eastern provinces due to Ontario's other SPIF configurations, or accept a large reduction in gross refusal to increase the semitrailer length to 16.20 m (53 ft) and weight for the existing Michigan configuration. doubles combination overall length to 25 m (82 ft) until 1994. Qubec began its restrictions on tri-axle semitrailers in 1991, While the tridem semitrailer replaced many of the former tri- and the proportion of these semitrailers seen in the 1999 sur- axle semitrailers, the availability of the quad and self-steer quad vey would be expected to have diminished substantially, as they semitrailer at a 16.20-m (53-ft) length has inhibited its growth, have been replaced by tridem and self-steer quad semitrailers. as these alternatives provide a greater payload for some com- The four Atlantic Provinces harmonized their size and modities, and they can still bring back a load that would nor- weight regulations in 2001 (37). They have also transitioned mally travel in a tandem semitrailer. from tri-axle semitrailers to tridem semitrailers, and possibly Change in the fleet within the Prairie Provinces has been also to some B-trains. The quad and self-steer quad semitrail- substantial since the M.o.U was implemented in 1989. The ers have also been introduced under permit, principally in New adoption of the tridem allowed 6-axle semitrailers to emerge as Brunswick, to accommodate trade with Qubec. The propor- an important configuration penetrating the fleet mix to a level tion of this configuration would be expected to increase. Turn- of about 25% by 1997. Eight-axle B-trains made up about 15% pike Double operations are also just getting started by special of the fleet while 7-axle B-trains and A-trains all but vanished. permit in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The fleet mix distribution on the Trans-Canada Highway east corridor consists of about 60% 5-axle tractor semitrailers, 20% 3.2.2 Cross-Border Fleet 6-axle tractor semitrailers, and 10% B-trains (2). There have not been significant changes in regulations in The 1999 National Roadside Survey also provided insight the four western provinces since 1999, so the proportion of into the trucks used between Canada and the United States the fleets would be expected to be maintained. The tridem (65). Data were downloaded for all trips that indicated travel drive tractor and straight truck have come into use in the on roads in the United States, which provided an overview of forestry industry and in other heavy haul applications in cross-border truck traffic. However, not all data could be used British Columbia and Alberta, and these now have a small for a border-crossing analysis, because it included records that presence, displacing some tandem drive equipment and cre- did not indicate the origin, destination, or both, or indicated