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9 CHAPTER 2 Truck Size and Weight Regulation in Canada Truck size and weight regulation in Canada has always 2.1.1 Regulations in the Late 1960s been under the jurisdiction of the provinces. Regulations were developed by each province in the early part of the Truck size and weight regulations in the 1960s were gener- 20th century, with the growth of the provincial highway ally rather similar in the provinces of Canada and the states systems. There was little interprovincial trucking at this in the United States. The regulations were completely pre- time, so differences between the truck size and weight reg- scriptive, and allowable weights and dimensions were similar. ulation of different provinces were not a significant issue. For example, the principal size and weight limits in Ontario However, the development of a modern highway system in in the 1960s were as follows: the 1960s and 1970s led to growth in interprovincial truck- ing, and significant and differing changes to the size and Maximum overall length was 19.81 m (65 ft); weight regulations made by provinces rapidly became a Maximum semitrailer length was 13.72 m (45 ft); barrier to inter-provincial trade. This led the provinces into Allowable axle loads were: a lengthy cooperative process to harmonize the regulations. 4,536 kg (10,000 lb) for a steer axle; This chapter presents 8,165 kg (18,000 lb) for a single axle; 14,515 kg (32,000 lb) for a tandem axle; and Some history of the evolution of size and weight regulation 19,051 kg (42,000 lb) for a tridem axle; in Canada, Allowable gross weights were: A summary of current size and weight limits, and 19,051 kg (42,000 lb) for a 3-axle vehicle; An outline of the institutional framework for truck size and 33,566 kg (74,000 lb) for a 3-axle tractor with a 2-axle weight regulation in Canada. semitrailer; and 36,287 kg (80,000 lb) for 3-axle tractor with a 3-axle semitrailer; and 2.1 Recent History and Evolution Higher weights were possible for double trailer combina- Truck size and weight regulations in Canada are now tions, up to 55,338 kg (122,000 lb) for a 3-axle tractor with founded on the "Federal-Provincial-Territorial Memorandum two 3-axle trailers. of Understanding on Interprovincial Weights and Dimen- sions," hereafter referred to as "the M.o.U." (1). This section The limits were so restrictive that there was really little describes choice of configuration. The predominant configuration was a tractor-semitrailer with a 13.72-m (45-ft) semitrailer, as The history and evolution of truck size and weight regula- seen in Figure 1 and Figure 2, and there were also a few dou- tions in Canada from the 1960s through to the mid-1980s, ble trailer combinations, as seen in Figure 3 (2). These trucks The process followed to create and implement the first were similar to those that existed at the same time in the other national agreement on truck size and weight in 1988, provinces in Canada, and in many states in the United States. Subsequent changes to the M.o.U., and Uniformity of size and weight regulations between provinces Other changes in size and weight regulations that have was not a big issue, because prior to closing the last gap in the happened since implementation of the M.o.U. Trans-Canada Highway in 1962, the only highway connection