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Index A Accretion, 27, 45, 125, 131, 158 Actuarial i55ue5, 5, 8, 18, 68, 72, 82, 91 Cc also Erosion hazard zones Aerial photography, 94-96, 102, 107, 117, 123, 124-125, 127, 128-129, 136-137 Alaska, 27 Army Corps of Engineers, 14, 51, 52-53, 54, 56, 93, 110, 115, 122, 140, 152 Association of State Floodplain Managers Surrey, 97 Atlantic Coast, 23, 24, 26, 36-38, 52, 56, 74 see ~80 8pecipc borders thatch Average annual erosion rate, 64, 80, 81, 86, 87, 89, 90, 95-99, 104, 154 A-zones, 62, 63, 74 B Banks and banking, 8CC Loans Barrier islands, 23, 29, 36, 37, 38, 45, 47, 83, 106, 108 173 Coastal Barrier Resources Act, 47, 52, 56 Beaches, 2, 11-12, 23-41, 55, 107, 117, 126, 137, 140, 165-166 biogenic formations, 25, 40 Carolina Beachfront Management Act, 167 cost of use, 17 nourishment, 4, 7, 10, 11, 14, 17, 30, 23, 37, 38, 56-58, 69, 98, 106, 107, 108, 116, 117, 155 pocket, 21, 36, 39, 45 protection, general, 59-64 recreational, 36-37, 65, 105-106, 109, 123 sand bypasses, 29, 61 sea level and, 20, 23, 24, 25, 35-36, 80 sources and sinks, 2, 4, 23-25, 33, 40, 41, 45, 110, 117, 132 8CC also Dunes Bibliographies, 128 Biological factors, beach formations, 25, 40 Bluffs, 23, 24, 40, 41, 45, 78, 80, 98, 102-103, 115, 123, 126, 135, 137 JCC ~80 Dunes Breakwaters, 10, 20, 35-36, 60-61

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174 Building codes, 67, 89, 72, 78, 82, 89, 98, 103-104, 115 condemnation, 81, 85, 86-87, 88, 89 see also Permits and licenses; Setback requirements C Calcium carbonate, 25 California, 21, 27, 33, 35, 38-39, 40, 65, 109-117 Carolina Beachfront Management Act, 167 Chesapeake Bay, 23 Chevron Oil Company, 116-117 Classification, 40, 45 beaches, 21, 23 erosion hazard areas, delineation, 5-7, 55, 74-76, 80, 89-91, 94, 101-102, 138, 167 flood V8. erosion damage, definition, 4, 16, 72-73, 93 Clean Water Act, 18 see also Federal Water Pollution Control Act Climate and weather, sec Weather and climate Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA), 47, 52, 56 Coastal Construction Control Line (CCCL), 107, 108 Coastal Erosion Information System, 126 Coastal States Organization, 95 Coastal Zone Conservation Act, 110-114, 115 Coastal Zone Management Act, 18, 54, 55, 67 Community Rating System, 9, 90 Computer science mapping, 128-129, 136, 137 Monte Carlo simulations, 120, 121, 122, 133-134, 138, 140 real time, 110, 154 transport models, programmed, 154 see also Data bases Condemnation, 81, 85, 86-87, 88, 89 see also Demolition and relocation Court cases, 48, 64-65, 104 Currents, 2, 23, 25, 72, 80, 81, 110 El Nina, 29, 114, 121 INDEX em also Breakwaters; Groins and jetties; Littoral drift/transport; Seawalls and revetments D Dams, 11, 21, 24, 35 Data bases, 14, 120-121, 122-124, 127, 132-133, 136, Geographic Information System, 76, 139-140 Data collection and analysis, Cc Computer science; Information needs; Statistics Defense, 1 Delaware, 21 Demography, ecc Population factors Demolition and relocation, 2-3, 7, 010, 37, 38, 66-67, 69, 79-80, 82, 84-89, 91, 99-100 Department of the Interior, 51, 53-54, 93 Disaster Relief Act, 83 Disasters and disaster assistance, 101 Cc also Floods; Hurricanes; Insurance; Storms Dredging federal regulation, 51, 52-53, 54 offshore disposal, 10, 31, 33, 34 sand and gravel mining, 11-12, 17, 21, 33 state regulation, 98 Dunes, 2, 25, 40, 41, 55, 61, 62, 67, 69, 74, 75, 80, 83, 135, 138, 140, 157, 165-167 state programs, 98, 105, 108 BCC also Barrier islands; Bluffs EEarthquakes, 27, 36, 39, 100110, 114, 115-116 Easements, 89 Economic factors, 1-2, 18 actuarial issues, 5, 8, 18, 68, 72, 82, 91 beach nourishment, 11, 37, 108-109 building requirements, 67, 69, 72

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INDEX demolition and relocation, structures, 9-10, 66, 79-80, 84-89, 91 erosion and flood losses and insurance, 55, 71, 72, 76-77, 79, 83-87, 91, 100-101, 105 erosion hazard zone insurance rates, 8, 68, 91 erosion mitigation, 17, 54-55 Federal Insurance Rate Maps, cost, 18, 74, 76-78 government funding, 50-51, 52, 54-55, 66-67, 71, 72, 76-77, 79, 161 loans, 49, 100, 101 mapping, 129 public infrastructure investment, 68, 106 tax incentives, 106 see also Property owners and ownership Education, public, 12-13, 68, 94, 101-102, 106, 167 environmental impact statements, 10, 12, 52 El Nina, 29, 114, 121 Energy resources, offshore, 33-35, 114 Engineering, 2, 11, 37, 46, 56 62, 73 infrastructure, 2, 50-51, 56, 68, 106 see ~80 Navigational structures and waterways; Structural erosion control Environmental Protection Agency, 52, 53, 54, 93 impact statements, 10, 12, 52 Erosion hazard zones (E-zones), 72 delineation, 5-7, 55, 74-76, 80, 89-91, 94, 101-102, 138, 167 information requirements, 13 insurance rates, 8, 68 relocation benefits, 9-10 state-level, 94, 95, 101-102 see ~JO Average annual erosion rate; Demolition and relocation; Setback requirements Error analysis, maps, 124, 125, 137, 138 Executive Order 11988, 15, 93 Executive Order 11990, 15, 93 175 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 13-15, 17, 52, 55, 120, 122, 128, 129, 134-137, 156, 167 flood- and erosion-related losses, 2, 72, 77, 78, 86-93 recommendations,.4, 5-10, 13-15, 81-82, 117, 139-140 JCC ~JO National Flood Insurance Act/Program; Upton-Jones Amendment Federal government, 17, 164 damage mitigation programs, 16, 54-55 regulation, 49, 50-56 resource management, 44, 54-55 JCC ~JO Law; Laws, specific; ~peciTc agencies Federal Insurance Administration, 3 4, 52 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 52-53 JCC ~JO Clean Water Act Fish and Wildlife Service, 53-54 Flood Disaster Protection Act, 72-73 Floodplains, 80-81 Executive Order 11988, 15, 93 Federal Insurance Rate Mans. 18 74, 76-77 management, 14-15, 62, Cc also National Flood Insurance Act/Program state and local actions, 64, 80 Unified National Program, 14-15, 92-93 V-zones, 62, 63, 74-76, 77-78, 91, 166 Floods, 40, 65, 68, 157 beach types and, 21 control measures, 10-11, 18, 48 w. erosion, definition, 4, 16, 72-73, 93 Gulf Coast, 38 Unified National Program, 14-15, 92-93 see also National Flood Insurance Act/Program Florida, 4, 13, 30, 32, 34, 37-38, 57, 59, 61, 64, 99, 107-109, 123, 154

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176 G GENESIS, 152 Geographic Information System, 76, 139-140 Geological considerations, 26,27,36, 39,41,109-110,114, 115-116 see also Oceanography; Subsidence Geological Survey, 93,122,124,128 Georgia, 37 Glaciation processes and effects, 26, 36,41 Government role, 47,50-51 see ~80 Federal government; Law; Local government; State government Gravel, Cc Sand and gravel Great Lakes, 1, 3,21,40-41,51,53, 78-79,85,98,100-104,123,124 dredging, 52 seasonal erosion, 18 see ~80 specific horde Jt~CJ Greenhouse effect, 114 Groins and jetties, 2j 10,11,14,30, 35-36, 46, 48,59, 116-117 Gulf of Mexico, coastal zone, 38,52, 56 beaches, 23,24,26 Rood zone mapping, 74 subsidence, 27,35 ace ~80 8pCCipC borders Jt~Cd H Harbors and ports, 1, 10, 20,38-39, 98 Historical perspectives, 1 Coastal Zone Conservation Act, 112-113 geologic conditions, 26, 27,36,39, 41,109-110, 114,115-116 sea level changes, 25,26 shoreline changes, 20; in prediction, 7,10,107, 120,122-129, 136-140 Housing and Community Development Act, 78, 79, 81-82 see also Upton-Jones Amendment Human factors, 2, 4,18, 25, 29, 33-35,41,45,85,98,132 emotion, 167 INDEX recreation, 36-39,65, 73,105-106, 109,123 8CC also Education; Law; Political factors; Population factors Hurricanes, 2,14, 25,29,36,74,78, 99,125,126 Camille, 26,38, 77 Elena, 38 Eloise, 154 Hugo, 77,83, 87,91,165-167 Kate, 38 I Indiana, 99 Information needs, 3,120,140 bibliographies, 128 Coastal Erosion Information System, 126 Coastal Resources Information Center, 114 Community Rating System, 9, 90 environmental impact statements, 10, 12, 52 Geographic Information System, 76, 139-140 Nadriorzal Atlas, 128 sec ado Computer science; Data bases; Education; Models; Statistics Infrastructure, 2, 50-51, 56, 68,106 dCC ~JO Navigational structures and waterways; Structural erosion control Inlets, 20, 2~30, 45, 61 tidal, 14, 23, 25, 31, 33 Insurance, 17, 68, 157 actuarial issues, 5, 8, 18, 68, 72, 82, 91 Federal Insurance Administration, 3, 4, 52 priorate, 4, 16~17 JCC also National Flood Insurance Act/Program; Upton-Jones Amendment Intracoastal Waterway, 52 Islands, Cc Barrier islands Italy, 35 J Jetties, 8CC Groins and jetties

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INDEX Jurisdiction, 1, 16, 46-47 Lakes, 2 den also Great Lakes Land and Water Conservation Fund, 67 Land management, 3, 7-8,16, 18, 44, 62-68,106 federal government, 71, 82 floodplains, 14-15, 62, 71, Cc ale o National Flood Insurance Act/Program; Upton-Jones Amendment laissez-faire, 17 local, 67, 73, 75,77,83, 102,161 state-level programs, 17, 94-117, 161 Unified National Program, 14-15, 92-93 Bee also National Flood Insurance Act/Program; Regulations Landslides, 116 Law, 3 court cases, 48, 64-65, 104 jurisdiction, 1, 16, 46-47 see ~80 Building codes; Permits and licenses; Property owners and ownership; Regulations; Standards Laws, specific Carolina Beachfront Management Act, 167 Clean Water Act, 18 Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA), 47, 52, 56 Coastal Zone Conservation Act, 110-114, 115 Coastal Zone Management Act, 18, 54, 55, 67 Disaster Relief Act, 83 Executive Orders 11988 and 11990, 15, 93 Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Section 404), 52-53 Flood Disaster Protection Act, 72-73 Housing and Community Development Act, 78, 79, 81-82 177 Land and Water Conservation E`und, 67 National Environmental Policy Act, 52 Shorelands Protection and Management Act, 101-104 Cc also National Flood Insurance Act/Program; Upton-Jones Amendment Licenses and permits, sec Permits and licenses Litigation, sec Court cases Littoral drift/transport, 21,24,25, 27,30-33,39,40,45, 57, 120-121 accretion, 27,45,125,131,158 barrier islands, 23,29,36,37,38, 45,47,83,106,108 models, 129-132,151-159 sand bypasses, 29,61,108 ace ale o Breakwaters; Groins and jetties; Sinks and sources Loans, 49,100,101 Local government, 50-51,81,82,139 Community Rating System, 9, 90 federal support, 55,66-67, 73, 75, 94,117 jurisdictional issues, 46-47 management programs and tools, 67,73,75, 77,83,102,161-162 research, 18,123 standards, 8 state/local cooperation, 95,104, 106,109 zoning, 49, 64~5 Louisiana, 21,38 Lumped v. LRy,48 M Management, JCC Land management Mangroves, 62,75 Mapping, 55,124-125,127-129,136, 137 A- and V-zones, 62,63, 74-76, 77-78,91,166 ae r ial p hot o graphy, 9 4-96,102, 107,117,123, 124-125,127, 128-129,136-137 computer-based, 128-129,136,137; dCC ~JO Data bases

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178 erosion hazard areas, delineation, 5-7, 55, 74-76,80,89-91,94, 101-102,138,167 error analysis, maps, 124,125,137, 138 Federal Insurance Rate Maps, 18, 74,76-77 historical shoreline changes, in prediction, 7, 107,120,122-129, 136-140 Natatoria] Atlas, 128 standards, 124,125,136, 137 Maryland, 29,31,47 Massachusetts, 21,27,36,48,64 Mathematical and numerical models, 13, 107, 129-135, 139, 140, 151-156 Monte Carlo simulations, 120, 121, 122,133-134,138, 140 McCarthy v. City of Manhatten Beach, 65 Methodologies, 7,56~8 aerial photography, 94-96,102, 107,117, 123, 124-125,127, 128-129,136-137 Federal Emergency Management Agency, 13-15, 72,77,78, 81-82,89,86-93,122,129, 134-137,139-140,156,167 historical shoreline changes, in prediction, 7,107,120,122-129, 136-140 sec also Classification; Computer science; Mapping; Models; Statistics Michigan, 41,81, 83,98, 99,100-104 Mining, sand and gravel, 11-12,17, 21,33 Mississippi, 26, 27,38 Models, 13,120-121,129-139, 151-159 mathematical and numerical models, 13,107,129-135,139, 140,151-156 real time, 110, 154 storms, effects, 120, 122, 131, 132, 133, 140,154, 156 transport models, 129-132, 151-159 see also Mapping Monte Carlo simulations, 120, 121, 122,133-134,138,140 INDEX Multidisciplinary approach, 14, 18-19,92-93 N National Atlas, 128 National Environmental Policy Act, 52 National Estuary Program, 54 National Flood Insurance Act/Program, 2,3,55, 62,67, 68 costs, 76-78 erosion provisions, 8-9,17-18, 71-93,98 hazard delineation, 74-76 private interests and, 49 rate maps, 18,74, 76, 77 regulations (CFR), 72-76, 86-87, 89-91 research and data needs, 13 standards, 4-5 text, selected, 161-163 Unified National Program, 14-15, 92-93 arc also Upton-Jones Amendment National Map Accuracy Standards, 124,125,136,137 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 14,52,54-55, 93,122,123,140 Office of Ocean and Coastal Resources Management, 54-55, 93 National Ocean Service, 123-125, 128,136 National Park Service, 53, 93 National programs, 14-15,17,50-56, 91-93 data base, 139-140 geographically selective, 47 map standards, 124,125,136,137 National Research Council, 3,68 Navigational structures and waterways, 1~11, 20,29-30, 108 dredging regulation, 51,52-53,54 harbors and ports, 1, 10, 20,38-39, 98 Intracoastal Waterway, 52 Netherlands, 154,158-159

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INDE}f New Jersey, 13, 21, 37, 38, 47, 64, 127, 128-129, 137 New York, 23, 36, 37, 47 North Carolina, 27, 37, 64, 79, 81, 83, 86, 95, 98, 104-107 Numerical and mathematical models, 13, 107, 129-132, 139, 140, 151-156 Monte Carlo simulations, 120, 121, 122, 133-134, 138, 140 o Oceanography, 7, 14, 120, 122, 133, 136, 138 Geographic Information System, 76, 139-140 see also Currents; Littoral drift/transport; Mapping; Sea level; Tides; Wave processes; Weather and climate Office of Ocean and Coastal Resources Management, 54-55, 93 Ohio, 41 Oil production, 33-35, 116-117 Oregon, 21, 39 p Pacific Coast, 36, 38-40 beaches, 21, 23, 24, 26 flood zone mapping, 74 see ~80 ~pecipc borders statue Pennsylvania, 81, 99 Permits and licences dredging, 52-53, 54 erosion control structures, 116-117 Bood- and erosion-prone areas, 82, 89, 103-104, 107-108 Photography, mapping, sec Aerial photography Physical processes, 4, 18, 129-130 accretion, 27, 45, 125, 131, 158 diversity of, 45 glaciation processes and effects, 26, 36, 41 landslides, 116 real time, 110, 154 subsidence, 12, 21, 26, 27, 33-35, 38, 72, 98, 162 179 8CC also Climate and weather; Currents; Littoral drift/transport; Sea level; Sinks and sources; Tides; Wave processes Political factors, 18 jurisdictional, 1, 16, 46-47 setbacks, 100 Population factors, 1, 16, 109 recreation, 36-39, 65, 73, 105-106, 109, 123 settlement diversity, 18, 45-46 urban areas, 1, 36, 37, 46, 137 Ports and harbors, Cc Harbor and ports Prediction, 13, 14, 16, 79, 121-122 shoreline changes, 20; in prediction, 7, 10, 107, 120, 122-129, 136-138 8CC also Erosion hazard zones; Models Preserves and refuges, 53-54, 66 President of the United States Executive Orders, 15, 93 Private interests, 47-49, 109 insurance companies, 4, 16-17 Property owners and ownership, 45-46, 50, 99-100 condemnation, 81, 85, 86-87, 88, 89 easements, 89 education of, 12-13, 68, 94, 101-102, 106, 111, 114, 167 real estate, 49, 109 responsibilities, 5, 103, 167 rights, 1, 18, 48-49, 64-65, 89 8CC ~80 Condemnation; Demolition and relocation; Insurance Public access, 1 Public opinion, 16 regulatory process, 18, 49 8CC ~80 Education Public property, 1-2 Cc also Infrastructure n. Real estate, 49, 109 8CC ~80 Property owners and ownership Real time, 110, 154

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180 Recreation, 36-39, 65, 73, 105-106, 109, 123 8ec also Beaches Reefs, 6~61 Refuges and preserves, ecc Preserves and refuges Regional issues, 21-23, 42 subsidence, 38 Regulations, 49-51 dredging, regulation, 51, 52-53, 64 jurisdiction, 1, 16, 46-47 laissez-faire w., 17 land use, 16, 20; Cc also Land management National Flood Insurance Act/Program (CFR provisions), 72-76, 86-87, 89-91 public input, 18, 49 state-level, 46, 48, 49, 50-51, 64-65, 78, 82, 94-117, 163 ace aid o Building codes; Erosion hazard zones; Permits and licenses; Setback requirements; Standards Relocation, Cc Demolition and relocation Remote sensing, 140 Research, 10, 14, 15, 123, 132, 140 federal, 122, 162-163 redundancy, 18 state, 95, 111, 114, 123 Revetments, 8CC Seawalls and revetments Rhode Island, 36 Risk assessment, sec Erosion hazard zones; Prediction Rivers, 24, 30, 39-40 dams, 11, 21, 24, 35 delta subsidence, 27, 35 good zones, 75-76 S Sand and gravel, 2 bypasses, 29, 61, 108 mining, 11-12, 17, 21, 33 oRshore disposal, 10, 31, 33, 34 sources and sinks, 2, 4, 23-25, 33, 40, 41, 45, 110, 117, 132 8ec also Beaches; Dredging; Dunes; Littoral drift/transport INDEX Sea level, 2, 39, 45, 80, 98, 109-110, 114, 125, 158 beaches, 20, 23, 24, 25, 35-36, 80 sec also Tides Seasonal factors, 18, 120, 122, 126 beaches, 25-26 E1 Nina, 29, 114, 121 Seawalls and revetments, 11, 14, 29, 35-36, 46, 59-60, 156, 165 Sediment, ecu Littoral drift/transport; Sand and gravel Setback requirements, 55, 65, 67, 126 National Flood Insurance Program, 7, 62, 64, 73, 75, 78, 79, 80, 82, 90-91, 167 state requirements, 81, 94-99, 102, 103, 105-108, 167 8CC ~30 Average annual erosion rate; Demolition and relocation Shorelands Protection and Management Act, 101-104 Sinks and sources, sand, 2, 4, 23-25, 33, 40, 41, 45, 110, 117, 132 Slope gradient and stability, 23, 45 South Carolina, 37, 81, 83 Hurricane Hugo, 77, 83, 87, 91, 165-167 Spieglc v. Borough of Beach Ha?' cr`, 65 Spills, 114 Standards, 7-8 condemnation, 81, 85, 86-87, 88, 89 data base, 13, 136 flood hazard zones, 71-73, 75, 77 maps, 124, 125, 136, 137 national, 18, 77, 124, 161 National Flood Insurance Program, 3, 4-5, 71-73, 75, 77, 80, 81, 89-91 state and local, 8 Cc also Building codes; Setback requirements State government, 8, 17, 94-117, 161, 163, 164 average annual erosion rate, 64, 80, 81, 86, 95-99, 104 Coastal Zone Management Act, federal/state cooperation, 18, 54-55 erosion hazard zones, 94, 95, 101-102 expertise, 93

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INDEX mapping, 128-129 numerical and mathematical models, 13, 107, 139, 151-156 research, 18, 95 regulations, 46, 48, 49, 50-51, 64-65, 78, 82, 94-117 setback requirements, 81, 94-99, 102, 103, 105-106 standards, 8 wetlands, 64 8CC ~80 dpCCi[C Hatch Statistics, 7, 13, 14, 120-121, 132-133, 138, 140 maps, errors, 124, 125, 128, 137 mathematical and numerical models, 13, 107, 120135, 139, 140, 151-156 Monte Carlo simulations, 120, 121, 122, 133-134, 138, 140 tabular data, 137 waves processes, 110, 114, 132 Statutes, Cc Law; Laws, specific Storms, 2, 14, 99 beaches and, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 57, 65 insurance, 3, 74, 79, 87 modeling, predictive, 120, 122, 131, 132, 133, 140, 154, 156 state programs, 105, 106, 107, 114-115 surges, tidal, 26, 152, 154, 165-166 see also Hurricanes Structural erosion control, 2, 3, 11, 14, 69, 106, 107, 116-117 beach nourishment, 4, 7, 10, 11, 14, 17, 23, 30, 37, 38, 56-58, 69, 98, 106, 107, 108, 116, 117, 155 sand bypasses, 29, 61 Cc also Breakwaters; Demolition and relocation; Groins and jetties; Seawalls and revetments Subsidence, 12, 21, 26, 27, 33-35, 38, 72, 98, 162 TTax incentives, 106 Temporal factors, 22 beach development, 23 geologic conditions, 26, 27, 36, 39, 41, 109-110, 114, 115-116 181 prediction, 12~140 real time, 110, 154 seasonal factors, 18, 25-26, 120, 122, 126 sec ago Historical perspectives; Prediction Texas, 35, 38, 99 Tides, 2, 23, 28, 30, 135 inlets, tidal, 14, 23, 25, 31, 33 storm surges, 26, 152, 154, 165-166 Transport models, 12~132, 151-159 Tropical regions, 25 U Unified National Program for Floodplain Management, 14-15, 92-93 Upton-Jones Amendment, 2-3, 17, 64, 78-90, 120, 140, 145-147 relocation benefits, 9-10 Urban areas, 1, 36, 37, 46, 137 V Virginia, 47 V-zones, 62, 63, 74-76, 77-78, 91, 166 W Washington State, 39 Waste management dredge spoil, 10, 31, 33, 34, 52, 54 septic systems, 103 Water Resources Council, 92 Wave processes, 2, 14, 21, 23, 25, 57, 65, 72, 74, 80, 81, 110, 114-115, 130, 131, 132, 138, 140, 152, 154-156 Atlantic vat. Pacific, 36, 39 Great Lakes, 40 em also Breakwaters; Groins and jetties; Littoral drift/transport; Seawalls and revetments Weather and climate, 45, 110, 131 El Nina, 29, 114, 121 greenhouse effect, 114 wind, 2, 23, 26, 67, 75, 110, 165 Cc also Hurricanes; Storms; Wave processes Wetlands, 53, 54, 64

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182 Executive Order 11990, 15, 93 Wind, 2, 23, 26, 67, 75, 110, 165 Wisconsin, 41, 64 z Zoning, 3, 49, 50, 64-65, 82, 102, 104 INDEX A- and V-zones, 62, 63, 74-76, 77-78, 91 Federal Insurance Rate Maps, 18, 74, 76-77 arc also Erosion hazard zones; Flood- plains; Setback requirements