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21 Nail Bolt (50 mm) Thin CFRP Plate Sheet Type 1 Type 2 Nail type Sub-version of type 3 Upper Plate Welding Angled Plate Bolt Bolt (130 mm) Lateral Plate Type 3 Type 4 Semi-closed type Closed type Figure 2.7. Anchoring methods of CFRP sheets. 2.5 Current Codes/Guidelines/ nally bonded FRP based on failure modes. FRP rupture is the Specifications likely mode of failure for complete wrapping applications and the ultimate strain of the FRP can be used for calculation of Design procedures for shear strengthening of concrete the shear contribution of FRP, with the use of a strength structures with externally bonded FRP are available in various reduction factor of 0.75. However, the ultimate strain is lim- forms (e.g., codes, guidelines, and specifications). ited to 0.004 in order to maintain aggregate interlock. For The Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally U-wrap and side bonding applications, both FRP debonding Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures (ACI and rupture are potential failure modes, and the shear con- 440, 2008) was developed based on ACI 318-08 (ACI 318, tribution of the FRP should be investigated for each failure 2008). This guide determines the shear contribution of exter- mode with the lesser value used for design. The analytical (a) Shallow embedment (b) Deep embedment depth depth Figure 2.8. Specimen details (Schuman 2004).