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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 678 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Design of FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Girders in Shear

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 678 Design of FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Girders in Shear Abdeldjelil Belarbi Sang-Wook Bae MISSOURI UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Rolla, MO Ashraf Ayoub UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON Houston, TX Daniel Kuchma UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN Urbana, IL Amir Mirmiran FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Miami, FL Ayman Okeil LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY Baton Rouge, LA Subscriber Categories Bridges and Other Structures Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 678 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 12-75 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-15531-1 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2010943265 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 678 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Amir N. Hanna, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Maria Sabin Crawford, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 12-75 PANEL Field of Design--Area of Bridges Bruce V. Johnson, Oregon DOT, Salem, OR (Chair) Jim Gutierrez, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Bryan A. Hartnagel, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City, MO Amy Leland, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Maria M. Lopez de Murphy, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA Wayne J. Seger, Tennessee DOT, Nashville, TN Jiten Soneji, Delaware DOT, Dover, DE Gamil Tadros, SPECO Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB Eric P. Munley, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 12-75 at the High-bay Structures Laboratory in the Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering at Missouri Uni- versity of Science & Technology. Abdeldjelil Belarbi, Professor and Chair of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at University of Houston Cullen College of Engineering (formerly with Mis- souri University of Science & Technology), was the Principal Investigator. Other contributors to the report are Amir Mirmiran, Professor and Dean of the College of Engineering and Computing at Florida Interna- tional University; Ashraf Ayoub, Professor of Civil Engineering in the Department of Civil and Environ- mental Engineering at University of Houston Cullen College of Engineering; Ayman Okeil, Professor of Civil Engineering in the College of Engineering at Louisiana State University; and Daniel Kuchma, Pro- fessor of Civil Engineering in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Post-Doctoral, Doctoral, and Graduate students who worked on this project were Sang-Wook Bae, Young-min You, Michael Murphy, Carlos Ortega, Antonio Brancaccio, and Rocio Tumialan in the Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering at Missouri University of Science & Technology. Professor Neil Hawkins of the Department of Civil and Environmen- tal Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Professor Antoine E. Naaman of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Michigan; Professor Kenneth Neale of the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Sherbrooke; and Omar Chaallal, Pro- fessor of Construction Engineering at cole de Technologie Suprieure, Canada provided guidance to the research team.

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FOREWORD By Amir N. Hanna Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report presents design guidelines for concrete girders strengthened in shear using externally bonded Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) systems. These guidelines address the strengthening schemes and application of the FRP systems and their contribution to shear capacity of reinforced and prestressed concrete girders. The guidelines are supplemented by design examples to illustrate their use for concrete beams strengthened with different FRP systems. The guidelines are presented in AASHTO LRFD format to facilitate use and incor- poration into the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Also, the report presents rec- ommended changes to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications to introduce provi- sions pertaining to the use of FRP systems for strengthening concrete girders in shear. The material contained in the report should be of immediate interest to state bridge engineers and those involved in the strengthening and repair of concrete structures using FRP systems. Use of externally bonded FRP systems for the repair and strengthening of reinforced and prestressed concrete bridge structures has become accepted practice by some state highway agencies because of their technical and economic benefits. Such FRP systems are light- weight, exhibit high tensile strength, and are easy to install; these features facilitate handling and help expedite repair or construction. Extensive research has shown that FRP systems improve both short- and long-term flexural behavior of concrete girders. Several analytical studies have dealt with the shear behavior of concrete girders strengthened with FRP sys- tems and a number of models were developed to predict such behavior. However, limited experimental studies have investigated the validity of these models. Nevertheless, some of these studies have shown that FRP systems can provide an effective means for increasing the shear capacity of concrete girders. Currently, there are no widely accepted guidelines for the design of concrete girders strengthened in shear using externally bonded FRP systems. Thus, research was needed to review available information, conduct analytical and experimental investigations to evaluate the contributions of FRP systems to shear capacity, and develop design guidelines for concrete girders strengthened in shear using externally bonded FRP systems. These guidelines will provide highway agencies with the information necessary for considering externally bonded FRP systems for shear strengthening of concrete girders to expedite repair and yield economic and other benefits. Under NCHRP Project 12-75, "Design of FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Gird- ers in Shear," Missouri University of Science and Technology of Rolla, conducted a review of the existing information and practices relevant to the strengthening of concrete girders in shear using FRP systems; identified the factors that influence the design of such girders; eval- uated available design methods and the shear design parameters that account for the FRP strengthening; and conducted laboratory tests to evaluate the effect of important factors on

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girder response and shear strengthening. Results of this work provided a basis for develop- ing guidelines and proposed changes to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The guidelines and proposed changes are accompanied by commentaries that are necessary for explaining the background, applicability, and limitations of the respective provisions. In addition, design examples are provided to illustrate use of the guidelines for designing FRP systems for strengthening reinforced and prestressed concrete beams. The guidelines presented in this report will be particularly useful to highway agencies because they facilitate consideration of FRP systems among the options available for the shear strengthening of concrete girders and help select options that are expected to yield economic and other benefits. The incorporation of the recommended design guidelines into the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications will provide easy access to the information needed for the design of externally bonded FRP systems for the strengthening of concrete girders in shear. The appendix contained in the research agency's final report provides further elaboration on the work performed in this project. This appendix titled "Research Description and Findings" is not published herein; but it is available on the NCHRP Report 678 summary webpage at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/164622.aspx.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 1.1 Background 4 1.2 Research Objectives 4 1.3 Research Plan and Methodology 4 1.4 Organization of the Report 7 Chapter 2 Summary of Major Findings 7 2.1 Use of FRP for Shear Strengthening of Concrete Girders 7 2.2 Field Applications 8 2.3 Existing Analytical Models 8 2.4 Experimental Investigations Reported in the Literature 21 2.5 Current Codes/Guidelines/Specifications 22 2.6 Factors Affecting the Design of FRP Shear Strengthening 32 2.7 Performance Evaluation of Existing Design Methods 33 2.8 Suggestions for Improved Design Methods 35 2.9 Reliability Assessment 37 Chapter 3 Application and Implementation 37 3.1 Approaches for Relevant Changes to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 38 3.2 Design Guidelines 38 3.3 Design Examples 39 Chapter 4 Summary of Findings and Recommendations for Future Research 39 4.1 Summary of Findings 40 4.2 Suggestions for Future Research 41 Notations 47 References 51 Attachment A Recommended Changes to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 59 Attachment B Recommended Design Guidelines for Concrete Girders Strengthened in Shear with RFP Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.