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NCFRP NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 9 Sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Guidance for Developing Administration a Freight Transportation Data Architecture

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM NCFRP REPORT 9 Guidance for Developing a Freight Transportation Data Architecture Cesar Quiroga Nicholas Koncz Edgar Kraus Juan Villa Jeffery Warner Yingfeng Li David Winterich TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE THE TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY SYSTEM College Station, TX Todd Trego Dunwoody, GA Jeffrey Short AMERICAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE Arlington, VA Elizabeth Ogard PRIME FOCUS, LLC DePere, WI Subscriber Categories Data and Information Technology Economics Freight Transportation Marine Transportation Motor Carriers Planning and Forecasting Railroads Research sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT NCFRP REPORT 9 RESEARCH PROGRAM America's freight transportation system makes critical contributions Project NCFRP-12 to the nation's economy, security, and quality of life. The freight ISSN 1947-5659 transportation system in the United States is a complex, decentralized, ISBN 978-0-309-15523-6 and dynamic network of private and public entities, involving all Library of Congress Control Number 2010941126 modes of transportation--trucking, rail, waterways, air, and pipelines. 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. In recent years, the demand for freight transportation service has been increasing fueled by growth in international trade; however, bottlenecks or congestion points in the system are exposing the COPYRIGHT INFORMATION inadequacies of current infrastructure and operations to meet the Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining growing demand for freight. Strategic operational and investment written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously decisions by governments at all levels will be necessary to maintain published or copyrighted material used herein. freight system performance, and will in turn require sound technical Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this guidance based on research. publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, The National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) is FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. a cooperative research program sponsored by the Research and It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) under Grant No. for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DTOS59-06-G-00039 and administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB). The program was authorized in 2005 with the passage of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). On September 6, 2006, a contract to NOTICE begin work was executed between RITA and The National Academies. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Freight The NCFRP will carry out applied research on problems facing the Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. freight industry that are not being adequately addressed by existing The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this research programs. report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Program guidance is provided by an Oversight Committee comprised The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to of a representative cross section of freight stakeholders appointed by procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. the National Research Council of The National Academies. The NCFRP Oversight Committee meets annually to formulate the research The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. funding levels and expected products. Research problem statements The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research recommending research needs for consideration by the Oversight Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program do not Committee are solicited annually, but may be submitted to TRB at any endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely time. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, because they are considered essential to the object of the report. which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. Heavy emphasis is placed on including members representing the intended users of the research products. The NCFRP will produce a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitioners. Primary emphasis will be placed on disseminating NCFRP results to the intended end-users of the research: freight shippers and carriers, service providers, suppliers, and public officials. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCFRP REPORT 9 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCFRP PROJECT 12 PANEL Catherine T. Lawson, State University of New York - Albany, Albany, NY (Chair) Scott R. Drumm, Port of Portland (OR), Portland, OR David L. Ganovski, David Ganovski & Associates, LLC, Berlin, MD Kathleen L. "Kitty" Hancock, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Alexandria, VA Ernest B. Perry, III, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City, MO Ronald J. Duych, RITA Liaison Rolf R. Schmitt, FHWA Liaison Thomas Palmerlee, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCFRP Project 12 by the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), Texas A&M University System, in collaboration with the American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI), and Prime Focus LLC. TTI was the prime contractor for this study, with the Texas A&M Research Foundation serving as Fiscal Administrator. Cesar Quiroga, research engineer at TTI, was the principal investigator. The other authors of this report are Nicholas Koncz, assistant research scientist at TTI; Edgar Kraus, associate research engineer at TTI; Juan Villa, research scientist at TTI; Jeffery Warner, associate transportation researcher at TTI; Yingfeng Li, assistant research scientist at TTI; David Winterich, research associate at TTI; Todd Trego, senior research associate; Jeffrey Short, senior research associate at ATRI; and Elizabeth Ogard, president at Prime Focus LLC.

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FOREWORD By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCFRP Report 9: Guidance for Developing a Freight Transportation Data Architecture pre- sents the requirements and specifications for a national freight data architecture to link myr- iad existing data sets, identifies the value and challenges of the potential architecture, and specifies institutional strategies to develop and maintain the architecture. The report is espe- cially valuable for (1) its analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of a wide range of data sources; (2) the development of a national freight data architecture definition that is scal- able at the national, state, regional, and local levels; and (3) a better understanding of the challenges that might block the implementation of a national freight data architecture as well as candidate strategies for developing, adopting, and maintaining the data architecture. This report lays the foundation for the development of such a data architecture. Public and private decisionmakers must understand the freight transportation system, its use, its role in economic development, its environmental impact, as well as other conse- quences in order to respond effectively to growing logistical requirements for businesses and households. This understanding draws on many disparate data sources covering commod- ity movements, relationships among sectors of the economy, international trade, freight traffic, supply chains, and transportation services and infrastructure. These data sources are difficult to link into useful information because they are collected under various definitions and time scales, geographic levels, and aspects of transportation. Efforts to bridge these dif- ferences with analytical techniques or new data collections tend to be ad hoc or cover only part of the freight transportation universe. Several studies and conferences by TRB have called for a national freight data architecture to link existing data sets and guide new data collections. However, none of these calls defined what is meant by data architecture or how it would be designed and implemented. Under NCFRP Project 12, the Texas Transportation Institute was asked to (1) review sys- tems, databases, and architectures that might be used as a potential reference for the devel- opment of a national freight data architecture; (2) develop a formal definition for a national freight data architecture; (3) identify high-level categories of data architecture components; (4) identify potential implementation approaches; (5) develop a list of specifications for the freight data architecture; and (6) identify challenges and strategies related to the implemen- tation of a national freight data architecture.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 10 Chapter 1 Introduction 10 Background 15 Research Objectives 17 Chapter 2 Data Sources, Systems, and Architectures 17 Introduction 17 Data Sources 19 System and Architecture Review 46 General Observations and Lessons Learned 49 Chapter 3 Surveys, Interviews, and Peer Exchange 49 Introduction 51 Surveys and Interviews 55 Peer Exchange 58 Chapter 4 Outline and Requirements for a National Freight Data Architecture 58 Introduction 58 Special Considerations 61 National Freight Data Architecture Definition 61 National Freight Data Architecture Value 62 National Freight Data Architecture Components 66 National Freight Data Architecture Specifications 72 Challenges and Strategies 76 Chapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendations 76 Introduction 76 Data Sources, Systems, and Architectures 77 Online Surveys, Interviews, and Peer Exchange 78 National Freight Data Architecture Definition 78 National Freight Data Architecture Value 79 National Freight Data Architecture Components 79 National Freight Data Architecture Recommendations and Specifications 79 Challenges and Strategies 82 References 90 Definition of Terms 92 Abbreviations, Acronyms, Initialisms, and Symbols Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.