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17 CHAPTER 2 Data Sources, Systems, and Architectures Introduction freight-related data sources at different geographic levels (including national, state, regional, and local levels) does not This chapter includes a discussion of systems, databases, exist. As a reference, the research team conducted a review of and architectures that might be used as a potential reference a sample of freight-related data sources at the national level for the development of a national freight data architecture. As to complement or otherwise extend existing listings. Table 1 previously described, the purpose of NCFRP Project 12 was provides the following information: to develop specifications for a national freight data architec- ture that could support the decisionmaking process by both Freight data source/dataset. This column provides a list- public and private stakeholders not just at the national level, ing of freight transportation data sources reviewed in this but also at the state, regional, and local levels. As the real- report. In total, the research team reviewed 49 freight data world examples in Chapter 1 showed, supporting such a wide sources. For convenience, Table 1 groups data sources spectrum of decisionmaking needs requires using a wide range according to the following categories: public-sector data of data sources. The literature review in this chapter includes sources; private-sector data sources; freight-related archi- a general description of available data sources as well as a tectures, frameworks, programs, and standards; and initia- detailed discussion of several systems and architectures that tives under development. were of particular interest because of the processes that led to Agency in charge. This column provides the name of the their development, which could be used as lessons learned agency responsible for maintaining and/or publishing the while developing a national freight data architecture. data. Data subject covered. These columns indicate whether Data Sources the data source covers specific data subjects. The data sub- A variety of listings, links, and summaries of systems, data- jects are associated with freight transportation components bases, architectures, and other related documents that pertain (i.e., cargo or freight, vehicle or container, transportation to freight transportation data are available in the literature. A network, and traffic control system), which are part of the small sample of documents that contain freight transportation freight data architecture described in this report. data-related listings includes the following: Transportation mode covered. These columns indicate whether the data source covers specific modes of freight FHWA listings of freight data sources (9, 10); transportation (i.e., air, rail, truck, water, and pipeline). FHWA report: Quick Response Freight Manual II (11); Note that the combination between cargo (under data BTS report: Directory of Transportation Data Sources (12); subject covered) and transportation mode provides an BTS report: A Preliminary Roadmap for the American Freight indication of the mode of transportation used to trans- Data Program (13); and port commodities. Texas Department of Transportation report: State-of-the- Practice in Freight Data: A Review of Available Freight Data It is worth noting that the list of freight data sources in in the U.S. (14). Table 1 is primarily at the national level and is not comprehen- sive. In practice, state, regional, and local entities collect and Although there is a wealth of sources of information that maintain datasets such as truck counts, commercial vehicle pertain to freight transportation, a comprehensive catalog of inventory datasets, accident data, and facility data (e.g., data

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18 Table 1. Freight-related data sources described in this report. Data Subject Transportation Mode Covered Covered Traffic Control Transportation Cargo/Freight Freight Data Source/Dataset Acronym Agency in Charge Container Network Vehicle/ Pipeline System Water Truck Rail Air Public Sector U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Market Service Publications (USDA) Agricultural Marketing x x x x x Service Air Carrier Data BTS x x Automated Commercial Environment/International ACE/ U.S. Customs and Border x x x x x x x Trade Data System ITDS Protection (CBP) Automated Commercial System ACS CBP x x x x x x Automated Export System AES CBP x x x x x Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Databases BLS x x x x x x Bureau of Transportation Statistics Publications BTS x x x x x x x Commodity Flow Survey CFS BTS, U.S. Census Bureau x x x x x Economic Accounts (including the National Income U.S. Bureau of Economic x x x x x and Product Accounts [NIPAs]) Analysis (BEA) Economic Census U.S. Census Bureau x x x x x x Energy Information Administration Data Services Energy Information Administration x x x x x Fatality Analysis Reporting System FARS NHTSA x x Freight Analysis Framework FAF2 FHWA x x x x x x Hazardous Materials Information System HMIS PHMSA x x x x x x x Highway Performance Monitoring System HPMS FHWA x x x Motor Carrier Financial and Operating Data FMCSA x x x Motor Carrier Management Information System MCMIS FMCSA x x x Motor Carrier Safety Status Measurement System SafeStat FMCSA x x National Automotive Sampling System NASS NHTSA x x National Hazardous Material Route Registry NHMRR FMCSA x x National Pipeline Mapping System NPMS PHMSA x x x National Transportation Atlas Database NTAD BTS x x x x x x U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Navigation Data Center Waterborne Commerce Data x x x x x (USACE) North American Transborder Freight Database BTS x x x x x x Railroad Data (including the Carload Waybill Sample) Surface Transportation Board (STB) x x x x Service Annual Survey U.S. Census Bureau x x x Statistics Canada Statistics Canada x x x x x x x x Surface Transportation Board Economic Data and STB x x x Tools TradeStats Express International Trade Administration x x x x x x TranStats BTS x x x x U.S. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Statistics U.S. Census Bureau x x x x x x Vehicle Travel Information System VTRIS FHWA x x Workforce Information Database WID States x x x x x Private Sector Association of American Railroads (AAR) AAR x x x x Publications American Trucking Associations Monthly Reports ATA x x Colography Group Services Colography Group, Inc. x x x IHS Global Insight Services IHS Global Insight x x x x x x Intermodal Association of North America Information Intermodal Association of North x x x x x Services America (IANA) Lloyd's MIU Services Lloyd's MIU x x x