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49 CHAPTER 3 Surveys, Interviews, and Peer Exchange Introduction it did highlight the need for finer resolution O-D data. The 2003 TRB Special Report 276 concluded that providing all the data An important part of designing a national freight data needed to satisfy all applications would be beyond the scope architecture is to identify who the users are as well as their of any national initiative and recommended the following corresponding data needs. As previously mentioned, users data items to capture important characteristics of freight include the community of public and private decisionmakers movements (4): at the national, state, regional, and local levels. The topic of freight data uses and needs has been widely Origin and destination; covered in the literature through various reports, papers, peer Commodity characteristics, weight, and value; exchanges, and conferences. A short sample of recent events and Modes of shipment; publications follows: Routing and time of day; and Vehicle/vessel type and configuration. 2001 Conference on Data Needs in the Changing World of Logistics and Freight Transportation, Saratoga Springs, The 2004 BTS report discussed the availability and limitation NY (5); of various data sources and proposed a data collection pro- 2003 TRB Special Report 276: A Concept for a National Freight gram within BTS's American Freight Data Program (AFDP), Data Program (4); as shown in Figure 7 (13). 2004 draft BTS report "A Preliminary Roadmap for the The 2005 report on state data needs included the results of a American Freight Data Program" (13); survey of state agencies, which included the following in terms 2005 Freight Data for State Transportation Agencies Peer of freight data used and/or needed by states (based on responses Exchange, Boston, MA (125); from 14 states) (125): 2005 New York Metropolitan Transportation Council (NYMTC) report "Description of Transportation Data to Business directories; be Collected for NYMTC's Products, Reports, and Perfor- Commodity characteristics, weight, and value; mance Measures" (126); Congestion and travel time data; 2007 Meeting Freight Data Challenges Workshop, Chicago, Crash and fatality data; IL (127); and Data on domestic versus international shipments within 2009 North American Freight Flows Conference: Under- state; standing Changes and Improving Data Sources, Irvine, Economic, land use, and employment data; CA (128). Hazardous material identifiers; Modal inventories; The focus of, and resulting recommendations from, these O-D data; reports varied. For example, the 2001 Saratoga Springs confer- Performance measure data; ence focused on freight movements and recommended identi- Real-time operational data; fying freight data gaps, using data synthesis tools to fill data Routing and time of day; gaps, and developing performance measures for freight (5). Truck and rail volume counts, classification, and weight; This conference did not produce a list of data needs, although Vehicle and vessel types and configurations;

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50 Figure 7. Freight data collection under the American Freight Data Program (13). Waybill data; and Rail data: Weigh station data. Rail carloads exchanged with East of Hudson origins/ destinations; The NYMTC report on transportation data requirements Container or trailer groundings in the East of Hudson produced a listing of data elements needed to support the region; needs of a variety of agencies in the New York metropolitan Rail freight levels of service (proprietary information, area (126). A summary of freight-related data requirements at may be difficult to acquire); NYMTC follows: Rail as a percentage of total regional freight traffic; Number of competing carriers (preserving service options Truck data: through future mergers); Truck volumes (with respect to total traffic volumes); Number of access modes (truck, barge/ferry); Levels of service (LOS) for major truck routes; Number of alternative access truck routes; Average speed; Connection time/distance to nearest limited-access Toll costs; highway or mainline rail head; and Curbside space management (loading/unloading zones, Average cost of dray operations. parking enforcement); Port data: Accident and incident rates; Actual throughput (total and per acre); Height clearances; Actual throughput as a percentage of theoretical "maxi- Turning radii; mum practical capacity" by functional component of each Access width; terminal (wharf and crane operation, storage, gate); Weight limitations; Average cargo dwell time; Truck delays at railroad/highway grade crossings; Hours of terminal operation; Usable shoulders; Utilization of storage (high versus low density); Highway design standards, acceleration and decelera- Number of access modes (truck, rail, barge/ferry); tion lanes, truck climbing lanes; Rail barge mode share; Signage; and Number of alternative access truck routes; Curbside capacity (for truck operations). LOS on major truck access routes;