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62 Use as a reference for requesting funding allocations in the public and private sectors; and Use as a reference for the development of outreach, profes- Total benefit sional development, and training materials. (a) National Freight Data Architecture Components As previously mentioned, a data architecture is not limited Single- Intermediate Holistic, all- to data models because the models are just the tools that en- application approaches encompassing able a systematic understanding of other components such as approach approach data, business processes, and roles. A list of components that make up a data architecture is therefore necessary. In the con- text of a scalable national freight data architecture that might need to serve the needs of a variety of decisionmaking levels, $, Complexity this data architecture would need to include a number of com- (b) ponent categories, such as the following: Physical transportation components, Cargo or freight, Freight functions or roles, Single- Intermediate Holistic, all- Business processes, application approaches encompassing Data sources, approach approach Freight-related data, Freight data models, Freight data standards, and User interface and supporting documentation. Net value (c) This list is preliminary and will need to be refined during the process of developing and implementing the data architecture. Figure 10 shows a high-level modular conceptualization and lists different categories of components. Each category and each component in Figure 10 can be thought of as an ob- Single- Intermediate Holistic, all- ject or dimension that can be defined and characterized using application approaches encompassing appropriate information parameters such as description, do- approach approach main, aggregation levels, attributes, and performance mea- Figure 9. Relationship between national freight sures. Although the diagram emphasizes the high degree of data architecture implementation level, total interaction among components, the main use of the diagram benefit, cost and complexity, and net value. would be as a tool to develop explicit lists of components to include in the national freight data architecture. As such, the diagram recognizes the scalable nature of the national freight Better understanding of the need for standards to assist in data architecture and enables the production of a variety of data exchange; diagram versions (as well as tabular representations) depend- Systematic, coordinated development of reference datasets ing on what implementation level to pursue. For example, for (e.g., comprehensive commodity code crosswalk tables); a single-application data architecture that only focuses on Systematic inventory of freight transportation data sources; commodity flows at the national level, it may not be necessary Systematic inventory of user and data needs that are pre- to depict (at least not in detail) other freight functions and requisites for the development of freight data management business processes. Similarly, not all data standards would need systems; to be considered, and the requirements for user interfaces to Use as a reference for the identification of locations where support that data architecture would be relatively minor. Fig- there may be freight data redundancy and inefficiencies; ure 11 and Table 8 illustrate this concept.

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Physical Transportation Components Cargo or Freight User Interface and Supporting Documentation -based information clearinghouse Freight-Related Data Freight Functions or Roles Freight Data Standards Commodity and product classification standards Fixed infrastructure manager CPC or operator HMIS HS NAPCS NMFC Regulator or policymaker NST 2007 Researcher PLU Shipper or receiver SCTG Freight-Related Data Third-party logistics or broker STCC Industrial classification standards Business Processes and condition ISIC NAICS Congestion management Data Model Tuesday, June 02, 2009 SIC SITC ata exchange standards , speed, and delay data Page 1 ANSI ASC X12 standards UN/EDIFACT standards Freight Data Models OASIS UBL standards routing data FIPS PUB 161-2 National ITS standards FGDC-sponsored standards Data Sources International trade (including metadata) Administrative records Logistics management Other standards ITDS SDS On-board security monitoring METS Planning and forecasting Vehicle classification standards by laws and regulations Roadside safety inspection Notes: -sector data 1) Categories and components are provided for illustration Routing and dispatching -sector data Safety analysis purposes, are not exhaustive, and may be subject to change. 2) Not all categories and components apply to all freight-related Transportation infrastructure business processes. analysis, design, and construction Transportation operations Workforce development and training Figure 10. National freight data architecture framework and components.

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Physical Transportation Components Cargo or Freight User Interface and Supporting Documentation -based information clearinghouse Freight-Related Data Freight Functions or Roles Freight Data Standards Commodity and product classification standards Fixed infrastructure manager CPC or operator HMIS HS NAPCS NMFC Regulator or policymaker NST 2007 Researcher PLU Shipper or receiver SCTG Freight-Related Data Third-party logistics or broker STCC Industrial classification standards Business Processes and condition ISIC NAICS Congestion management Data Model Tuesday, June 02, 2009 SIC SITC ata exchange standards , speed, and delay data Page 1 ANSI ASC X12 standards UN/EDIFACT standards Freight Data Models OASIS UBL standards routing data FIPS PUB 161-2 National ITS standards FGDC-sponsored standards Data Sources International trade (including metadata) Administrative records Logistics management Other standards ITDS SDS On-board security monitoring METS Planning and forecasting Vehicle classification standards by laws and regulations Roadside safety inspection Notes: -sector data 1) Categories and components are provided for illustration Routing and dispatching -sector data Safety analysis purposes, are not exhaustive, and may be subject to change. 2) Not all categories and components apply to all freight-related Transportation infrastructure business processes. analysis, design, and construction 3) Components marked with focus on commodity flows at Transportation operations the national level. Workforce development and training Figure 11. National freight data architecture components (focus on commodity flows at the national level).

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65 Table 8. Category components that pertain to commodity flows at the national level. National Freight Data Architecture Commodity- National Freight Data Architecture Commodity- Category/Component Flow-Related Category/Component Flow-Related Cargo or Freight Travel time, speed, and delay data Bill of lading Vehicle inventories Commodity Freight Data Model Invoice Business process model Item or product Conceptual model Purchase order Data dictionary Shipment Logical model Waybill Metadata Physical Transportation Physical model Container Freight Data Standard Traffic control system Commodity/product classification: Transportation network CPC Vehicle HMIS Freight Function or Role HS Analyst NAPCS Carrier NMFC Fixed infrastructure manager NST 2007 Planner PLU Policymaker SCTG Producer or manufacturer STCC Regulator Industrial classification standards: Researcher ISIC Shipper or receiver NAICS Third-party logistics or broker SIC Freight-Related Data SITC Business directories Data exchange standards: Carrier used ANSI ASC X12 standard Commodity inventories FIPS PUB 161-2 Products shipped/received OASIS UBL standards Distribution warehouse truck traffic UN/EDIFACT standards Economic data National ITS standards Emissions data and estimates FGDC-sponsored standards Employment by freight activity Other standards: Freight volumes ITDS SDS Fuel statistics METS Import and export statistics Vehicle classification standards Licensed carrier data Data Source Manifests and waybills Administrative records Mine output data Census Oversize/overweight routing data Data standards Pipeline volumes Mandatory reporting required by laws Railroad tonnage data Surveys Safety data Other private-sector data Shipment origins and destinations Other public-sector data Shipment weigh t User interface/supporting documentation Traffic bottlenecks Outreach and training materials Traffic volumes Web information clearinghouse Transportation infrastructure inve ntory Note: Components not marked as commodity -flow-related are not critical or may be considered optional. The diagram in Figure 10 is only one example of potentially Arrows between ovals represent relationships between com- many different types of diagrams that can be used to depict ponents. Each component is associated with user interface and interactions among freight transportation components. An supporting documentation components (as indicated by the example of a different type of diagram is Figure 12, which Documentation label). The arrows between ovals in Figure 12 shows a high-level conceptual model that depicts relationships represent many-to-many relationships between components. between different individual data architecture components for Examples of relationships include the following: specific business processes. In Figure 12, each oval represents a component within a component category. For example, a A physical transportation component can be associated with physical transportation component could be a vehicle, a con- many cargo or freight components and/or freight function tainer, a transportation network, or a traffic control system. or role components.