Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 27


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 26
26 Guidebook for Developing and Leasing Airport Property regulations are prevalent at all airports, while a mix of local, state, and other federal regulations exist and vary depending on location. The regulatory compliance section of an airport lease agreement must acknowledge and require the tenant, as one member of an airport's commu- nity, to adhere to the same standards for compliance as the other members of the airport and the airport community as a whole. 2.2.22 Hold Harmless Provision The lease between the airport sponsor and the tenant should include a hold harmless or indemnity clause that protects the airport sponsor from any legal action, suits, proceedings, claims, damage, loss, liability, cost, or expense that may be filed against the lessee for any reason arising from the operation and/or negligence of the lessee. In the spirit of quid pro quo, the air- port sponsor is typically asked and often evaluates reciprocal language that considers the lessee's position. Many airport leases include some level of hold harmless protection for the lessee as well, protecting them in the case of negligence on the part of the airport sponsor. 2.2.23 Nondiscrimination Part 21 of 49 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) outlines the mandate for nondiscrimination in federally-assisted programs of the Department of Transportation. Airport sponsors that receive federal grant funding through the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) are bound by grant assurances that prohibit discrimination on the grounds of race, color, or national ori- gin. Tenants leasing property that is part of an airport's lands fall within the parameters of a federally-assisted transportation program, so the airport sponsor should include nondiscrimi- nation language in its lease agreements, which is typically found under a "nondiscrimination" heading of the lease document 2.2.24 Living Clauses Living clauses play an important role in the lease document. These clauses allow existing agree- ments to evolve as associated regulations and laws change during the course of the lease term (e.g., wildlife, security, and environmental). Rules and Regulations, Minimum Standards, Rates and Charges, and Schedules of Insurances are other examples of documents that will likely change over time and that can be addressed through living clauses to maintain consistency. Airport sponsors should always be aware of ongoing regulation amendments and changes. It is the airport sponsor's responsibility to ensure the airport and all encompassing aspects conform to state and federal laws. Airport tenants should remain current on these laws, as the changes may require substantial financial obligations or a complete change of operating standards. 2.2.25 Force Majeure The force majeure provision of an airport development and/or airport lease should consider unavoidable causes for delay due to acts of God and natural disaster, which may set the stage for failures to perform the provisions of the agreement. Force majeure clauses are often provided to address delays in construction due to weather and should consider both the developer/tenant and the airport sponsor perspectives. Specifically, agreements should include force majeure lan- guage when the airport sponsor has agreed to do certain things or make certain improvements. For example, the airport sponsor may agree to construct a taxiway extension to meet the needs of a new development, but the agreement should include force majeure language that protects it