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104 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies When do they do it? How long does it take/how much time is actually available to do it? What has to happen before it? What happens after it? What resources does it need? All of these are decisions that someone must make and the EOP should point to the appropri- ate authority--explicitly by positions or even names. Much can be learned after an incident (or even an exercise) by answering these questions (again from CPG 101): Did an action, a process, a decision, or the response timing identified in the plan make the situa- tion worse or better? Were new alternate courses of action identified? What aspects of the action, process, decision, or response timing make it something to keep in the plan? What aspects of the action, process, decision, or response timing make it something to avoid or remove from the plan? What specific changes to plans and procedures, personnel, organizational structures, leadership or management processes, facilities, or equipment can improve response performance? While these questions speak more about the plan than decisions per se, decisions made the actions successful--or not. As NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 6: Guide for Emergency Transportation Operations stresses: Executive-level support is crucial to the development of a more formal program approach and to ensure that the responsibilities and resources are mobilized and targeted. Raising what is now a part-time, frag- mented set of responsibilities to the level of a resourced, managed program must overcome bureaucratic traditions and inertia, compete for resources, support new approaches, and forge new external relation- ships. These challenges require top executive leadership--starting at the policy level in agency headquar- ters and executed under the responsibility of the district and regional management levels. Such executive initiative and oversight is essential to ensure: Fostering of an interagency focus on the complete array of incidents and emergencies; Establishment of a formal program with senior responsibility, organization, and reporting; Allocation of adequate resources; Establishment of objectives with related performance measures and accountability; and Development of agency policy, laws, regulations, and interagency agreements. In short, emergency management is for everyone in leadership positions in the state transporta- tion agency, not just those bearing titles alluding to emergency management responsibilities. Detailed Self-Assessment Tools The more detailed agency self-assessment for state transportation agencies is contained in the first of two matrices--the full emergency response matrix. The second matrix, purpose and supporting resources for action reference, is a compressed version of the first and is a useful reference tool. Full Emergency Response Matrix The term requirements is used in a figurative sense, not literal; these are not absolute require- ments; rather, they are guidelines. The exception is that NIMS requirements are mandatory for agencies (both state and local level) that wish to receive FEMA compensation from DHS. The matrix follows the Plan-Prepare-Respond-Recover regimen discussed previously in Sec- tion 4, Develop an Emergency Preparedness Program. In the way of explanation, the following columns make up the matrix: Steps are the major sequence of activities that complete the Plan-Prepare-Respond-Recover process.

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Resource Guide 105 Phases are the Plan-Prepare-Respond-Recover processes named and numbered sequentially for ease of reference. Action Item(s) are the significant activities the state transportation agency would take for each phase. Ideally, each one of these should be an objective of any state agency's EOP. Supporting Actions are the one-to-many separate activities that the state transportation agency would undertake to achieve success for each phase. While ideally all of these are desirable, it is unlikely that most agencies will be able to accomplish each one. At a minimum, however, those identified by (*___*) are NIMS requirements and are of high priority. Those identified by (**____**) are suggested by the National Unified Goal (NUG) for Traffic Incident Man- agement (TIM), promulgated by the National Traffic Incident Management Coalition (NTIMC), and are highly desirable. The rest are important, but an agency would need to assess how much of its resources it can afford to expend to achieve them. Status provides space to record the state transportation agency's current actions, indicating not started, in progress, or completed. The Full Response Requirements Matrix, formatted as a spreadsheet, includes these categories. The following is an overview of the four steps in Table 8, Full Emergency Response Require- ments Matrix: Plan Form a collaborative planning team. Conduct research and analyze the data. Determine goals and objectives. Develop and analyze courses of action and identify resources. Write the plan. Approve and implement the plan. Exercise the plan and evaluate its effectiveness. Review, revise, and maintain the plan. Prepare Develop approaches to implement state transportation agency roles and responsibilities dur- ing emergencies, as specified in the State EOP (SEOP) and supporting annexes and referenced materials. Establish protocols to communicate with employees and the general public. Develop plans and procedures to manage traffic under emergency conditions. Develop mobilization plans to ensure readiness to deploy state transportation agency person- nel and resources. Ensure cost tracking and accountability. Respond Initiate emergency response. Address emergency needs and requests for support. Manage evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine. Implement emergency response actions. Continue response. Conclude response. Recover Restore traffic to affected area. Identify and implement lessons learned. Note that the applicability of these requirements is primarily directed at the agency's own EOP. Each agency will have to determine to what extent similar actions are included in the state trans- portation agency's component(s) of the State EOP (SEOP). Ideally, the SEOP should include the full resources and capabilities of the state transportation agency in particular, and the transporta- tion community in general.

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106 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Table 8. Full Emergency Response Matrix. STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PLAN Not In Com- Started Progress pleted 1.1. Select an Emergency Planning Coordinator (EPC) for the 1. Form a PLAN-01 Identify and agency and supporting team members. collaborative designate lead 1.2. The size of the planning team will depend on the scope of the planning Emergency agency's operations, requirements, and resources. team. Planning The planning team should be of sufficient size to encourage Coordinator and participation and investment in the process. team for the state transportation Design the planning team to enhance the visibility and agency. stature of the planning process and to provide a broad perspective on the issues. The planning team should include active members and advisory members. In most cases, a small group (5 to 7 people) will do the bulk of the work; however, identify other members to review planning documents, coordinate input, identify resources and needs, and assess outcomes. Structure the planning group to receive input from all agency functional areas. 2.1. Demonstrate management's commitment and promote an PLAN-02 Establish authority. atmosphere of cooperation by authorizing the state transportation agency EPC and planning team to take the steps necessary to develop/update the agency's emergency plans and response program. 2.2. Executive management should strongly support EPC's participation in the State Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) process and define authority. 2.3. Establish a clear line of authority between team members and the agency Emergency Planning Coordinator. 2.4. Upper management should appoint participants, in writing, to the planning group. Participant job descriptions could also reflect this assignment. 3.1. The agency Chief Executive Officer should issue a mission and PLAN-03 Issue a Mission vision statement to demonstrate a commitment to emergency Statement. planning. 3.2. The statement should Define the scope of activities to be performed by the emergency management coordinator and planning team. Identify the agency's high-level goals for the emergency planning process. Identify the documents and/or programs the agency emergency planning team is to develop. Indicate that creation of these documents and programs will involve the entire organization. Define the authority and structure of the planning group. 4.1. Emergency Management Team should define specific goals and PLAN-04 Establish a objectives of the emergency management process and schedule and performance metrics. budget. 4.2. Establish a work schedule and planning deadlines. Modify timelines as priorities are more clearly defined. 4.3. Develop an initial budget for such things as research, printing, seminars, consulting services, and other expenses that may be necessary during the development process. 5.1. The agency emergency planning process should begin with 2. Conduct PLAN-05 Identify documents the State Emergency Operations Plan (SEOP) and the functional research and to be developed, annexes and hazard-specific appendices. analyze data. reviewed, approved, 5.2. The State EOP may be supported by specific plans, procedures and/or updated or other documents developed by the state transportation regarding the state agency and/or other agencies to support implementation of the transportation SEOP, including the following: agency's emergency **Overview and Primers provide a brief concept summary of a function, team, or capability.** response plans and programs. **Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) or Operations Manuals** provide a complete reference document, detailing the procedures for performing a single function (SOP) or a number of interdependent functions (Operations Manual).** **Field Operations Guides (FOGs) or Handbooks** provide durable pocket or desk guides, containing essential basic information needed to perform specific assignments or functions. **Job Aids** include checklists or other aids useful in performing or training for a specific job to be performed in the EOP.

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Resource Guide 107 Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PLAN Not In Com- Started Progress pleted 5.3. Other plans may be available for agency review, including **State or agency Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP).** State or agency Continuity of Government Plan (COG). State or agency Critical Infrastructure/Key Resources (CI/KR) Protection Plans. State or agency Pandemic Flu Plan. Agency Transportation/Traffic Incident Management Plans. Agency Emergency Response Plans and HazardSpecific **Response Plans (i.e., snow/ice, hurricane, and responses like contraflow operations).** 6.1. **Meet with the state's NIMS Coordinator to establish a working PLAN-06 Work with the State relationship for addressing NIMS compliance issues**. National Incident 6.2. **Determine if the agency should have a NIMS coordinator. If so, Management and if one has not already been assigned, determine whether System (NIMS) the agency Emergency Planning Coordinator should assume Coordinator to this role.** identify state 6.3. **Receive and review a copy of the State's NIMS transportation Implementation Plan.** agency 6.4. **Obtain from the state's NIMS Coordinator a clear list of NIMS requirements for requirements being addressed by the state and any outstanding addressing Corrective Action Plans (CAPs) filed with FEMA that may statewide NIMS relate to the agency.** implementation. 6.5. *Ensure that state adoption of NIMS through executive order, proclamation, resolution, or legislation applies to the transportation agency and that no additional action is required by the agency to formally adopt NIMS.* 6.6. *Determine how the state has established its NIMS compliance baseline against the FY05 and FY06 NIMS implementation requirements and the specific actions required for the agency in FY 2007 through FY 2009.* 6.7. *Determine any specific NIMS training requirements applicable for the transportation agency and obtain the status of the 2. Conduct department in meeting these requirements.* research and 6.8. *Determine whether the state is implementing NIMS resource analyze data typing protocols for the inventory and tracking of transportation- (continued). related resources and what actions the agency should perform to ensure incorporation of these protocols into its planning activities.* 6.9. *If not already occurring, determine if monthly or quarterly meetings should be conducted with the state's NIMS Coordinator to ensure full implementation of NIMS in all transportation agency planning, training, and drilling activities.* 7.1. Ensure documents accurately reflect transportation-related PLAN-07 Review State EOP resources and authorities. and supporting 7.2. Ensure the SEOP clearly defines leadership roles and annexes and responsibilities for transportation-related issues and clearly appendices and articulates the decisions that need to be made, who will make other documents them, when they will be made, and to whom they should be for transportation- disseminated. related activities. 7.3. Ensure the SEOP facilitates response and short-term recovery activities required from a transportation perspective. 7.4. Ensure the SEOP includes strategies for both no-notice and forewarned evacuations, with particular considerations for assisting vulnerable (e.g., mobility disabled/disadvantaged) populations and for dealing with animal populations. 7.5. Verify that specific procedures and protocols have been developed to augment the SEOP to guide rapid implementation of transportation requirements--both to provide the emergency services needed by the population in general and for the transportation department(s) itself. 7.6. Verify that the situations and assumptions identified in the State EOP are appropriate from a transportation perspective. 7.7. Verify that the concept of operations in the State EOP adequately addresses transportation roles, responsibilities, capabilities, and concerns. 7.8. Verify that the organization and assignment of responsibilities in the State EOP and supporting annexes and appendices is adequate for transportation-related activities. (continued on next page)

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108 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PLAN Not In Com- Started Progress pleted 7.9. Verify that administration, communications, and logistics sections of the SEOP accurately reflect transportation general support requirements and availability of support services from other agencies, including general policies for managing resources and activating mutual-aid agreements, liability provisions, and policies for reassigning public employees and soliciting and using volunteers. Also, make sure that general policies on financial record keeping, tracking resources, and compensation of private property owners are appropriate for the agency. 7.10. Verify that the State EOP contains authorities and references appropriate for transportation response, including any laws, statutes, ordinances, executive orders, regulations, policies, and formal agreements relevant to providing transportation during emergencies. 7.11. Verify that coordination processes are in place to share information and any necessary command and control with the regional Transportation Management Center (TMC), if present. 7.12. Verify that coordination processes are in place to share information with the regional Intelligence Fusion Center (FC), if present. 7.13. Verify that the functional annexes and hazard-specific appendices identify activities to be performed by all agencies and organizations with responsibilities under transportation functions. Functional annexes also should clearly define actions before, during, and after an emergency event. Hazard-specific appendices should identify specific transportation activities to take in unique circumstances beyond the basic approach detailed in the State EOP. 7.14. Verify that transportation terms are included and correctly defined in the State EOP glossary. 7.15. Verify that the SEOP pre-designates transportation 2. Conduct representatives to the State Emergency Operations Center research and (SEOC)/Multiagency Coordination System (MACS). analyze data 7.16. Verify that the State EOP includes pre-incident and post- (continued). incident public awareness, education, and communications plans and protocols related to transportation. 7.17. Verify that the State EOP includes local post-incident debriefings and after-action reporting (see federal coordination later). 7.18. Verify that the State EOP includes provisions for notifying regional and national authorities if the event would not ordinarily rise to the level of a major disaster in itself, but could have widespread indirect impacts (e.g., a traffic incident that creates congestion sufficient to delay airline crews from reaching a major airport, thus widely disrupting flight schedules). 8.1. Determine if the hazards identified in the State EOP are PLAN-08 Review relevant appropriate and complete from a transportation perspective. hazards likely to 8.2. Ensure that the SEOP addresses all hazards that the state may result in an reasonably expect to occur and all the preparedness and emergency requiring incident management activities necessary to ensure an activation of the effective response to those hazards from a transportation State Emergency perspective. Operations Center. 8.3. Determine if the SEOP clearly indicates which types of hazards would likely require mobility restriction measures (shelter-in- place/quarantine) as part of the response (e.g., earthquake, pandemic flu) and which ones would require enhanced mobility (evacuation) (e.g., hurricanes). 8.4. Determine if the hazard-specific annexes adequately address the transportation-related aspects of the identified hazards or additional elements should be considered to address the hazard. 8.5. Ensure that pipelines, viaducts, etc., are included in the EOP. 8.6. NOTE: Hazard maps are available in compilations of hazard information made by FEMA and state emergency management agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and state geological surveys, and the National Weather Service (NWS)

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Resource Guide 109 Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PLAN Not In Com- Started Progress pleted and its local offices. Maps from the Federal Insurance Administration (FIA), maps of 10- and 50-mile emergency planning zones (EPZs) around nuclear power plants, and any maps of hazardous materials (HAZMAT) sites prepared by Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) may also be useful. 9.1. Identify issues and requirements associated with vulnerable PLAN-09 Gather information populations. regarding vulnerable 9.2. Identify potential assets to deploy for these populations in an populations. emergency, as needed, and have contact information readily Note: Vulnerable available. populations typically 9.3. Identify appropriate destinations for evacuation or restriction include individuals measures (shelter-in-place/quarantine) for vulnerable with disabilities, populations and have contact information readily available, or a children, senior path to locate such facilities. citizens, pregnant women, people with pets, low-income, transit-dependent, hospitalized and institutionalized (including incarcerated persons); those with limited English proficiency or who are non-English speaking; individuals lacking transportation; those with chronic medical 2. Conduct disorders; and research and people with analyze data pharmacological (continued). dependency. 10.1. Has the agency completed procedures regarding how to work PLAN-10 Determine status with the state to request federal assistance? of state 10.2. Does the agency have written procedures on how to secure transportation assistance through mutual-aid agreements that may exist? agency emergency 10.3. Does the agency have established orders of succession or a planning activities COOP plan? to date and identify 10.4. Does the agency have established, documented procedures for areas in need tracking action items and mission assignments? of improvement. 10.5. Does the agency have established, documented procedures for requesting and tracking requests for resources? 10.6. Does the agency have established, documented procedures for participating in the SEOC, to include levels of activation based on the event(s) in progress? 10.7. Are there written processes for administrative functions that agency representatives may perform within the EOC, such as computer protocols, e-mail conventions, telephone use, security, logging hours, and reporting procedures? 10.8. Does the agency have documented procedures for tracking expenditures? 10.9. Are there written procedures for involving and orienting private- sector interests that may be participating in emergency activities managed by the agency? 10.10. Are there written procedures for involving and orienting volunteers and volunteer organizations participating in emergency activities if managed by the agency? 10.11. Do written agency procedures comply with legal statutes for risk-based, hazard-specific programs that require them to accept, or to the contrary reject, volunteers (e.g., volunteer fire fighters who are not on duty and/or properly attired and equipped)? (continued on next page)

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110 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PLAN Not In Com- Started Progress pleted 10.12. Are there written agency procedures for communicating timely and accurate information to the public? 10.13. Are there written agency procedures for issuing public warnings via sirens, Emergency Advisory System (EAS), and/or other warning mechanisms? 10.14. Do agency procedures identify coordination points with other operational agencies, teams, or sections? 10.15. Has the agency developed overview documents outlining qualifications of their personnel? 10.16. Has the agency developed overview documents that describe general tasks and responsibilities and hazard-specific tasks and responsibilities? 10.17. Has the agency developed procedures that translate tasking into specific actions that describe how the organization will accomplish assigned tasks? 10.18. Does the agency have or use one or more of the following: **Checklists?** **Resource listings?** **Related maps and charts?** **Other pertinent data?** 10.19. Does the agency address: **Notification mechanisms?** **Staff/ing of positions three levels deep?** 10.20. Does the agency identify components in field operating manuals or desk handbooks for support personnel unfamiliar with this jurisdiction's emergency operations? 10.21. Has the agency developed checklists and/or job aids to assist personnel to complete their tasks? 10.22. Does the agency have documented procedures for rapid needs assessment and coordinating with the federal damage assessment teams after an event? 2. Conduct 10.23. Does the agency have documented procedures for requesting research and post disaster assistance from the federal government, including analyze data public assistance and individual assistance from FEMA? (continued). 10.24. Does the agency have documented procedures in place to coordinate the distribution of mass prophylaxis, such as the National Strategic Stockpile, if applicable? 10.25. Does the agency have documented procedures in place to support evacuations (including contraflow operations if appropriate) or shelter-in-place/quarantine and mass care, if applicable? 10.26. Does the agency have documented procedures to support the management of casualties and mass fatalities, including animals? 11.1. Ensure coordination with DHS and FEMA guidance. PLAN-11 Define response issues, roles, and tasks by reviewing the Universal Task List (UTL), Target Capabilities List (TCL), Resource Typing List, and the National Planning Scenarios (NPS). 12.1. *Update organization charts and determine if specific teams, PLAN-12 Based on activities groups, committees, and/or temporary organizations will be identified in the used to manage agency responses to emergencies identified in State EOP and the State EOP.* supporting annexes 12.2. *Be sure to review agency TIM Plans and Protocols and and appendices, specific emergency response plans to identify incident develop/update management structures currently used.* the state 12.3. *Identify and train agency field personnel in charge of on-scene transportation response to coordinate with the ICS established by the local or agency's state emergency response agencies on-scene. Points of Transportation

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Resource Guide 111 Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PLAN Not In Com- Started Progress pleted interface with the ICS established by local/state agencies may Incident include* Management **Incident Command Posts (ICPs) and staging areas, for Organization reporting and resource management.** to ensure all activities conducted **ICS and Unified Command or even Area Command (if conform to NIMS needed) to guide incident action planning.** and National **State, local, and private-sector EOCs.** Response **Coordination with TMC and/or FCs.** 2. Conduct Framework (NRF) **Participation in Joint Information Center (JIC) to manage research and requirements. public information.** analyze data **Participation in a Joint Field Office (JFO) to coordinate (continued). federal response and resources.** **Possible coordination with Regional Response Coordination Center (RRCC) and Homeland Security Operations Center (HSOC) in events of national significance.** 12.4. **Consider preparing an overview document/primer and a FOG on the agency's Incident Management Organization, including how this organization may change depending on the type of emergency being managed.** 13.1. Clarify what constitutes success regarding the agency's 3. Determine PLAN-13 Establish response to the range of emergencies that could occur resulting goals and operational from the hazards identified for the state. objectives. priorities, response goals, and intermediate objectives for the state transportation agency in response to the hazards identified and the existing State EOP and supporting documents, as well as new challenges identified during the analysis process. 14.1. Use a formal process for building relationships among the 4. Develop PLAN-14 Use scenario- occurrence of hazards, decision points, and response actions. and analyze based, functional, courses and capabilities- of action based planning to and identify depict how the state resources. transportation agency's response to a range of emergency situations may unfold. 15.1. Ensure that adequate resources are available. PLAN-15 Identify the resources needed to support the state transportation agency's response activities. 16.1. Complete state transportation planning inputs and deliverables 5. Write PLAN-16 Develop and/or for the State EOP and supporting documents. the plan. update 16.2. Establish expectations regarding transportation functions during transportation- the range of potential incidents addressed in the State EOP. related components 16.3. Develop/update transportation-related components of the State of the State EOP, SOP, the functional annexes to the State EOP, and the hazard- functional annexes, specific appendices to the State EOP. and hazard-specific 16.4. Ensure that agency liaisons are available to support the SEOC appendices. *and, if applicable, the county/municipal EOCs, TMC(s), and/or FC(s) during a state-declared emergency.* (continued on next page)

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112 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PLAN Not In Com- Started Progress pleted 17.1. Ensure that sufficient materials exist to support the training and PLAN-17 Develop supporting response activities of agency personnel during emergencies. materials, including 17.2. Identify needed agency plans or documents to be developed, any specific plans, including any agency-specific emergency response plans, guidance, overviews COOP/COG plans, etc. documents, SOPs, 17.3. Develop SOPs detailing the procedures for performing operating manuals, individual functions identified in the transportation-related FOGs, handbooks, component of the State EOP and Hazard-Specific Annexes. and job aids needed 17.4. If applicable, develop an Operations Manual detailing the to support state performance of a number of interdependent functions specified transportation in the transportation-related elements of the State EOP. 5. Write agency personnel 17.5. Develop a FOG or Handbook, such as a durable pocket or desk the plan capabilities to guide, containing essential basic information needed to perform (continued). respond to specific assignments or functions as specified in the emergencies. transportation-related elements of the State EOP. 17.6. Develop Job Aids to provide detailed checklists or other aids for job performance or job training regarding the transportation- related elements specified in the State EOP and Hazard- Specific Annexes. 17.7. Develop criteria for the reporting, and (particularly) verification of a potential incident by motorists or citizens, even from specially trained individuals, such those involved in road watch, first observer, transit watch, volunteer spotter, and other probe programs (including transit vehicle operators). 18.1. Ensure adoption of the plan and supporting materials. 6. Approve PLAN-18 Formally approve and and implement the implement transportation- the plan. related provisions of the State and transportation agency EOPs and supporting annexes and agency-specific supporting materials. 19.1. Ensure state transportation agency personnel are trained in 7. Exercise PLAN-19 Develop a how to respond to emergencies. the plan and coordinated evaluate its program of training, effectiveness. drills, and exercises. 20.1. Ensure that the agency plans, procedures, and supporting 8. Review, PLAN-20 Establish an materials include the latest information. revise, and ongoing review and 20.2. Design periodic exercises to test, even stress, established maintain assessment process processes to identify needed improvements. the plan. for the transportation- related elements of the state and state transportation agency EOPs and supporting materials.

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Resource Guide 113 Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PREPARE Not In Progress Com- Started pleted 1.1. Clarify the threat warning and notification system to be used 1. Develop PREPARE- Establish protocols for by the state transportation agency. approaches 01 heightened Homeland 1.2. Identify specific actions that the agency will take for each for Security Advisory System level in the HSAS. implementing (HSAS) threat levels. 1.3. Where possible, coordinate the activities identified for each state level of the HSAS with the transportation-related activities transportation identified in state's basic Emergency Operations Plan and agency roles the Hazard-Specific Annexes. and responsibilities 2.1. *Promote intrastate and interagency mutual-aid agreements PREPARE- Develop a Memorandum of during (to include agreements with private and nongovernmental 02 Understanding/Agreement emergencies, organizations).* (MOU/A) with other local as specified in 2.2. *Develop Mutual-Aid Agreements and and state agencies the State EOP notification/information sharing protocols with local/regional regarding the and supporting and state partners regarding the transportation-related transportation-related annexes and elements specified in the State EOP.* elements specified in the references. 2.3. *Use the state/territory response asset inventory for Intra- State and Regional EOPs. and Interstate Mutual Aid [such as Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC)] requests, exercises, and actual events.* 2.4. *Build relationships with local, regional, State, and Federal Emergency Management Agencies (EMAs), Emergency Operation Centers, Emergency Planning Committees, Emergency Response Commissions, TMCs, Fusion Centers, and Public Health and Agricultural organizations.* 2.5. *Define key terms, roles and responsibilities of individuals, 2.6. and contact information.* 2.7. *Include procedures for requesting and providing assistance.* 2.8. *Include procedures, authorities, and rules for payment, reimbursement, and allocation of costs.* 2.9. *Include notification procedures and protocols for interoperable communications.* 2.10. *Explain relationships with other agreements among jurisdictions.* 2.11. *Address workers' compensation and treatment of liability and immunity.* 2.12. *Provide for recognition of qualifications and certifications. 2.13. *Share agreements, as required.* 2.14. *Review, support, and adopt FEMA's ongoing efforts to develop a national credentialing system.* 2.15. *Expand mutual aid agreements beyond support services and equipment to include information sharing and interagency decision making.* 2.16. *Establish MOUs with the owners of electrical power transmission trunk lines, pipelines, viaducts, etc., for monitoring of these facilities and include in the EOP appropriate responses to damage to them.* 3.1. **Establish a common understanding with community, PREPARE- Develop an approach to state, and federal jurisdictions of the capabilities and 03 provide state distinct types of emergency response equipment available. transportation agency 3.2. **Develop an agency Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP).** critical services during 3.3. **Develop an agency Continuity of Government Plan (COG).** emergencies. 3.4. **Acquire or pre-identify key equipment and supplies specified in the COOP.** 3.5. **Identify response resources and develop an asset inventory conforming to NIMS resource typing standards, including DHS standards as identified by the National Integration Center (NIC). When feasible, propose modification or new resource definitions to the NIC for inclusion in the resource typing effort.** 3.6. **Identify and have strategies to obtain and deploy major equipment, supplies, facilities, and systems in sufficient quantities to perform assigned missions and tasks. 3.7. **Implement an effective logistics system to mobilize, track, use, sustain, and demobilize physical and human resources. The system must support both the residents in need and the teams that are responding to the incident.** 3.8. **Develop Personnel Resource Lists identifying appropriate personnel available to support various incident types. Include contractor personnel.** (continued on next page)

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114 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PREPARE Not In Progress Com- Started pleted 3.9. **Develop Equipment/Materials Resource Lists identifying equipment and materials needed and available for various incident types. Include contractor resources.** 3.10. **To the extent permissible by state and local law, ensure relevant national standards and guidance to achieve equipment, communications, and data interoperability are incorporated into state and local acquisition programs.** 3.11. **Share these lists with appropriate local, state, and regional EMAs.** 3.12. **Develop extended/emergency staffing plans, including the suspension of vacation and leave and overtime/compensatory time provisions as warranted.** 4.1. Convene stakeholders to develop and revise PREPARE- Develop a state evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine plans. Include 04 transportation agency practitioners with past experience. approach to 4.2. Identify goals and objectives, and guidelines for plan evacuation/shelter-in- evaluation and updating. place/quarantine 4.3. Identify ultimate decisionmakers, Incident Commanders, management. organizations, and those with authority and responsibility for evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine, by position, and ensure their tasks have been pre-defined. 4.4. Identify the roles and responsibilities of government agencies, including transportation and public safety, and how these agencies coordinate their efforts with each other. 4.5. Identify variations in direction and control for different types of events that require evacuation/sheltering-in- 1. Develop place/quarantine. approaches 4.6. Perform practice exercises (at least tabletop) to test the for plan to evacuate/shelter-in-place/quarantine vulnerable implementing populations. state 4.7. Identify the number and location of people and vehicles to transportation be evacuated, sheltered-in-place, or quarantined. agency roles 4.8. Identify primary and secondary evacuation/shelter-in- and place/quarantine routes based on probability and feasibility responsibilities of use, survivability, ease of restoration, functional service, during and strategic location. emergencies, 4.9. Identify agencies and personnel who will report to the EOC as specified in and how they will be notified to report. the State EOP 4.10. Address shelters and in-place provisions. and supporting 4.11. Document decision criteria to be monitored and evaluated annexes and prior to issuing an evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine references order. (continued). 4.12. Identify how and when to communicate the evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine order to the emergency management community and to the public. 4.13. Define specific criteria for voluntary, recommended, or mandatory evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine. 4.14. Include pre-approved drafts of executive orders for evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine. 4.15. Describe the time phasing of evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine execution (i.e., sequential and concurrent activities) for different levels of response. 4.16. Account for communicating with limited English-speaking individuals and people with special needs (i.e., hearing, physical, mental, or vision impairments). 4.17. Address the use of public transit vehicles, school buses paratransit, trains and other publicly or privately owned vehicles that could be used during the evacuation/shelter- in-place/quarantine. (NOTE: hereinafter all of these vahicles are generically referred to as transit vehicles.) 4.18. Designate routes and locations for ingress traffic and pre- staged equipment materiel and personnel along the evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine routes, including fuel and personal relief facilities. 4.19. **Include a strategy for restricting and securing access to evacuated, sheltered-in-place, or quarantined areas.**

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Resource Guide 115 Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PREPARE Not In Progress Com- Started pleted 2. Establish PREPARE- Establish internal state 5.1. Evaluate the use of radio channels, frequencies, trunked radio protocols to 05 transportation agency systems, and cellular phones during events likely to result communicate communications in emergencies requiring activation of the State EOC. with protocols. 5.2. Establish predetermined frequency assignments, lists of employees agency channel access, and interagency communication and the protocols. general public. 5.3. Determine how agencies and specific traffic management team personnel will communicate with each other in the field and on what channels. 5.4. Coordinate and support emergency incident and event management through development and use of integrated multi-agency coordination systems. 5.5. Develop and maintain connectivity capability between local Incident Command Posts, local 9-1-1 centers, local EOCs, the State EOC, and regional and federal EOCs and NRF organizational elements. 5.6. Develop systems, tools, and processes to present consistent and accurate information to incident managers at all levels. 5.7. Specify agency and interagency contact information. 5.8. Establish calling trees and notification systems, including 24/7 event notification protocols. 5.9. Prepare an employee communication strategy, including emergency communication systems and materials for distribution in advance of events. 5.10. Incident response communications (during exercises and actual incidents) should feature plain language commands so they can function in a multi-jurisdiction environment. Revise field manuals and training to reflect the plain language standard. 5.11. Identify single points of contacts, with back-ups, in all jurisdictions and agencies for communications, including the protocols for which to contact under what conditions. 5.12. Identify when to notify individuals to be evacuated/sheltered-in-place/quarantined prior to executing the order. 5.13. Identify contingency plans for use if normal means of communication fail or are unavailable. 5.14. Include provisions for keeping the public informed of the estimated travel times to safe haven under current and forecast conditions. 5.15. Identify who must be informed to begin opening shelters. 5.16. Identify specific contingency plans to be used if conditions change during the course of the evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine. 5.17. Institutionalize, within the framework of ICS, the Public Information System comprising the Joint Information System (JIS) and a Joint Information Center (JIC). The Public Information System will ensure an organized, integrated, and coordinated mechanism to perform critical emergency information, crisis communications, and public affairs functions that are timely, accurate, and consistent. This includes training for designated participants from the Governor's office and key state agencies. 5.18. **Standardize incident reporting and documentation procedures to enhance situational awareness and provide emergency management/response personnel with access to critical information.** 6.1. Develop Media Interface Guidelines to ensure traveler PREPARE- Develop media interface information is provided quickly and accurately to media 06 and public notification outlets and the public. Include in these guidelines systems. appropriate instructions to discourage unnecessary or unnecessarily lengthy evacuations. 6.2. Designate (preferably) a single spokesperson to provide information to the media and the public. 6.3. Identify communication tools to be used to ensure the community receives information regarding the steps to be taken to prepare for evacuation, the evacuation zone, the routes of evacuation, and location of nearby shelters. (continued on next page)

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116 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PREPARE Not In Progress Com- Started pleted 6.4. Develop agreements with traffic reporting services. Provide protocols and guidance to these services for involving them in informing the public. 6.5. Establish Broadcast Radio Agreements to ensure that information is provided in a preestablished format within specific time frames. 6.6. Develop pre-scripted public service announcements and messages and inform the media on their use. 6.7. Establish Cable Television Cooperative Agreements to provide information to targeted populations (e.g., local government channels). 6.8. Establish a process for using Highway Advisory Radio (HAR) AM stations to provide traveler information in the immediate vicinity of the transmitter. 6.9. Establish a process for using mass faxing capability or email 2. Establish to send road closure information to trucking associations, protocols to truck stops, inspection and weigh stations, media outlets, communicate and others. with 6.10. Establish processes for using Advanced Traveler employees Information Systems (ATIS), including Internet, kiosk and the facilities, 5-1-1, and other publicized public information general public services to inform the public of travel conditions. (continued). 6.11. Establish a process for using Dynamic Message Signs (DMSs) to provide timely, accurate information in advance of and at the scene of an incident. 6.12. Identify foreign language speakers and outlets to communicate with citizens and visitors who may not understand English. 6.13. Establish times for public officials to provide updates and address informing the public of when they can expect such updates. 6.14. Ensure that the state/territorial Public Information System can gather, verify, coordinate, and disseminate information during an incident. Accomplish this through exercises and drills of the system. 6.15. *Use existing Public Information System and/or other communication systems for effective practices and technical aids.* 3. Develop PREPARE- Establish applicable 7.1 Establish traffic management teams to manage and direct plans and 07 transportation agency traffic on highways, at critical intersections lacking active procedures to response and signalization, and contraflow operations, as needed. manage traffic management teams. under 8.1. Perform traffic flow analyses, evaluating speed, vehicle emergency PREPARE- Prepare traffic occupancy, traveler behavior, contraflow, etc., and include conditions. 08 management in evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine route performance measures. adjustments. 8.2. Analyze traffic flow of evacuation routes focusing on all freeways and major arterial roadways serving the evacuation route. 8.3. Focus on egress and ingress operations separately. 8.4. Avoid left-turn movements across traffic flow. 8.5. Divert traffic flow from critical locations and bottlenecks that could cause congestion. 8.6. Develop multiple local flow (feeder) routes connected to the main evacuation routes, as necessary to achieve optimum evacuation efficiency. 8.7. Test contraflow operations, including full set-up and break down of equipment and materials. 8.8. Identify the distances those evacuated/sheltered-in- place/quarantined must travel to reach a point of safety for each of the catastrophic hazards identified. 8.9. Identify user groups potentially affecting egress and ingress operations (e.g., regional through traffic, truckers, other interstate travelers). 8.10. Review applicable passive (e.g., traveler information dissemination only) and aggressive (e.g., physical traffic control) operations strategies. 8.11. Develop freeway interchange operations tactics to maximize ramp capacity and prevent evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine route mainline congestion.

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Resource Guide 117 Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PREPARE Not In Progress Com- Started pleted 8.12. Increase intersection traffic handling capacity by simplifying traffic movements and minimizing the number of traffic signal phases. 8.13. Analyze potential bottlenecks, barriers, scheduled work zones, and other potential problems in advance to determine an evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine route. 8.14. Plan for shutting down highway work zones and nonessential commercial vehicle traffic restrictions, including oversized loads, hazardous materials, etc. 8.15. Implement a process to suspend toll collections on public and private toll roads. 8.16. Adjust ramp metering as necessary. 8.17. Adjust traffic signal timing as necessary. 8.18. Use FHWA's Arterial Management Program for arterial management, traffic signal timing, and access management. 8.19. Use highway contractors to secure highway construction work zones. 8.20. Control traffic and respond to traffic incidents through joint efforts among transportation, law enforcement, and emergency medical personnel. 8.21. Review/modify/suspend timing of drawbridge openings and lock downs. 9.1. Develop pre-designated traffic control points (TCPs) for PREPARE- Develop traffic intersections along the transportation corridor. Coordinate 09 management plans the designation of these TCPs with state and local law and protocols to use enforcement. during evacuation/shelter- 9.2. Develop Alternative Emergency Response Access Routes. in-place/quarantine and to 9.3. Identify emergency turnarounds, including median respond to emergency breaks/crossovers, to allow emergency response and events. highway operations personnel to turn around between interchanges. 3. Develop 9.4. Identify emergency access for transit operations, including plans and locations for access to transit rail lines for emergency procedures to response. manage traffic 9.5. Develop protocols for communicating and coordinating with under construction crews to support traffic control. emergency 9.6. Identify equipment storage sites for pre-staging anticipated conditions. equipment. (continued). 9.7. Establish predetermined staging areas for each segment of the transportation corridor. 9.8. Develop travel-on-shoulder guidelines to ensure that highway shoulders are available for emergency use for response vehicles and general traffic if necessary. 9.9. Establish closure and alternate route guidelines to guide implementation of closures and alternate routes using pre- determined routes. 9.10. Establish rapid vehicle and debris removal guidelines to ensure a process for clearing roadways. 9.11. Establish landing zone guidelines and predetermined landing sites for MedEvac helicopters and traffic surveillance aircraft. 9.12. Develop traffic signal control plans to quickly implement alternative routes and close impacted lanes on the transportation corridor. 9.13. Identify traffic control techniques to provide clear guidance for incident traffic control and allow safe and efficient deployment of closures, detours, and alternative routes. 9.14. Identify corridors equipped with traffic signal preemption for use by emergency vehicles. 10.1. Coordinate plans with neighboring jurisdictions that may be PREPARE- Coordinate with affected by evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine and 10 neighboring jurisdictions. response operations. 10.2. Share plans with higher government levels, as requests for additional resources may be necessary. 10.3. Coordinate state plans with neighboring states, as those evacuated/sheltered-in-place/quarantined may travel to another state to seek shelter or mutual aid may be requested from another state. 10.4. States should look into creating interstate compacts that encompass all local jurisdictions. 10.5. Use the capabilities of regional organizations, such as the I-95 Corridor Coalition, to assist in such coordination. (continued on next page)

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Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS PREPARE Not In Progress Com- Started pleted 11.1. Test all primary and backup wire communications and radio 4. Develop PREPARE- Prepare to mobilize frequencies expected to be used during the event. mobilization 11 response teams, 11.2. Test the function of remote communications and evaluate plans to equipment, and contingencies. ensure resources. 11.3. Ensure response vehicles are fueled and in proper working readiness order. to deploy state 11.4. Place equipment and resources at pre-determined transportation locations, including portable DMS equipment, food and agency water, gasoline tankers, mechanics crews, and others that personnel and may be staged along the pre-designated routes. resources. 11.5. Bring all emergency operation centers up to fully functional status. 11.6. Activate mobilization plans for emergency personnel. 11.7. Activate reception plans, sites, and support capabilities with public and/or volunteer organizations. 11.8. Establish field capabilities through the ICS/Unified Command System. 11.9. Use inter-jurisdictional and interagency information flow and coordination. 11.10. Notify all response personnel of evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine orders according to established calling trees and communication protocols. 11.11. Response personnel should report to staging areas and await orders to begin response and evacuation efforts. 11.12. Ensure all responsible agencies understand joint priorities and restrictions. 11.13. Prior to activation, afford staff an opportunity to ensure the safety of their loved ones and personal property. 11.14. Manage timely communication of evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine instructions to prepare people in advance of the order to evacuate, shelter-in-place, or quarantine. 11.15. Ensure sufficient resources are available to protect responders and those evacuated/sheltered-in- place/quarantined. 11.16. Assemble, transport, and install cones, barriers, barricades, etc. 12.1. **Develop interagency training programs to provide a PREPARE- Administer training common understanding of the transportation ICS and 12 programs. program guidelines.** 12.2. **Establish professional qualifications, certifications, and/or performance standards for individuals and teams, whether paid or volunteer.** 12.3. **Ensure content and methods of training comply with applicable standards and produce required skills and measurable proficiency.** 12.4. **Incorporate NIMS/ICS into all state/territorial and regional training and exercises.** 12.5. **Establish employee and contractor training and exercise programs.** 12.6. **Participate in joint multi-agency training and exercises. This should include an all-hazards exercise program based on NIMS that involves responders from multiple disciplines and multiple jurisdictions.** 12.7. **Identify what additional training resources may be needed in the community to support response and evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine activities.** 12.8. **Identify through exercises and simulations, the estimated time needed to complete an evacuation for each of the catastrophic hazards identified and provide this information to highway, public safety, and transit agencies for coordination purposes.** 12.9. **Identify through training exercises, how long it takes to have field personnel and equipment in place to support an evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine.** 12.10. **Conduct post-exercise debriefings to determine lessons learned during the exercise.** 12.11. **Incorporate results of training exercises, including corrective actions into preparedness response plans and procedures.** 12.12. **Leverage training facilities to coordinate and deliver NIMS training requirements in conformance with the NIMS National Standard Curriculum.** 12.13. **Ensure that all personnel with a direct role in emergency** *preparedness, incident management or response, complete the designated FEMA training.* 13.1. Ensure processes have been developed to track resources, 5. Ensure cost PREPARE- Prepare for cost ensuring applicable reimbursement and accountability for tracking and 13 accounting and tracking compliance with mutual-aid provisions. accountability. of expenditures.

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Resource Guide 119 Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS RESPOND Not In Completed Started Progress 1.1. **Use surveillance systems to detect indicators of a potential 1. Initiate RESPOND- Detect and verify emergency, an emergency that is occurring, or an emergency emergency 01 emergencies. that has occurred.** response. 1.2. **Coordinate with and alert other agencies to recognize an emergency event in progress that may affect the regional transportation system.** 1.3. **Activate manual or automated information sharing with local Emergency Communications Centers (ECCs)/9-1-1 Centers/ Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs).** 1.4. **Coordinate with field personnel and equipment to verify that an emergency event is occurring or has occurred and communicate relevant information to all responding agencies.** 1.5. *Where they exist, use regional networks, such as the I-95 Corridor Coalition's Incident Exchange Network, for such notifications.* 2.1. **Receive cell phone calls from motorists to report incidents and RESPOND- Assess the status conditions directly to the transportation agency.** 02 of transportation 2.2. **Receive reports from road watch, volunteer spotter, first infrastructure. observer, transit watch, and other probe programs to enable specially trained individuals (including transit vehicle operators) to provide information by radio or cell phone.** 2.3. **If available/applicable, use automated vehicle location (AVL) identifiers in vehicles that travel a transportation corridor regularly to track vehicle movement and compare it against anticipated travel times to identify delays and potential incidents.** 2.4. **Where available, use cell phone tracking data to obtain near real-time travel time information.** 2.5. **Coordinate with/manage 24-hour law enforcement patrols to enhance detection, response, and site management with dedicated officers available at all times in the transportation corridor. ** 2.6. **Coordinate with/manage specialty patrols (motorcycle, aircraft) to provide surveillance of roadway conditions for incident detection, verification, response, clearance, and recovery.** 2.7. **Operate dedicated service/incident response patrols to provide early detection, verification, response, and clearance. Patrol vehicles are equipped to help stranded motorists and some are equipped to quickly remove a disabled vehicle or debris from the roadway.** 2.8. **Use automated detection systems, including loops, microwave, radar, and video, to detect congestion on the transportation corridor.** 2.9. **Use video surveillance equipment, mounted along the transportation corridor, to provide incident detection and verification. Video equipment can be combined with automated detection and reporting systems. Video can also be used to verify the occurrence of an incident and to identify the appropriate response equipment needed.** 3.1. **Continuously monitor relevant sources of information RESPOND- Gain and maintain regarding actual incidents and developing hazards. The scope 03 situational awareness. and type of monitoring varies based on the type of incident being evaluated and needed reporting thresholds.** 3.2. **Ensure critical information is passed through preestablished reporting channels according to established security protocols.** 3.3. **Ensure situation reports contain verified information and explicit details (who, what, where, and how) related to the incident. Status reports, which may be contained in situation reports, relay specific information about resources.** 3.4. **Based on an analysis of the threat(s), issue warnings to the public and provide emergency public information.** 3.5. **Receive notification of all declared emergencies.** 4.1. Activate appropriate plans, procedures, and protocols based on 2. Address RESPOND- Coordinate response the type of emergency. emergency 04 to emergency. 4.2. Activate Incident Management Teams in accordance with NIMS. needs and 4.3. Activate Specialized Response Teams including search and requests rescue teams, crime scene investigators, public works teams, for support. hazardous materials response teams, public health specialists, or other personnel as appropriate. (continued on next page)

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120 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS RESPOND Not In Completed Started Progress 4.4. Mobilize pre-positioned assets and supporting equipment. 4.5. *Manage all emergency incidents and preplanned (recurring/special) events in accordance with Incident Command System organizational structures, doctrine and procedures as defined by NIMS.* 4.6. ICS implementation must include the consistent application of Incident Action Planning (IAP) and Common Communications Plans (CCP), as appropriate. 4.7. As the incident unfolds, on-scene ICS should update incident action plans and revise courses of action based on changing circumstances, typically on a 15-minute review basis. 4.8. Coordinate requests for additional support. As appropriate and/or as requested, provide field support for emergency responders at the scene that is integrated through the ICS and communicated and coordinated with the TMC. 4.9. Activate logistics systems and venues to receive, stage, track, and integrate resources into ongoing operations. ICS should continually assess operations and scale and adapt existing plans to meet evolving circumstances. 4.10. Address emergency responder transportation needs and scene access support and staging requirements. 4.11. Identify available transportation equipment, facilities, personnel, devices, and information to support emergency response. 4.12. Assign transportation agency resources to move materials, personnel, and supplies as requested by responders. Track resource status. 4.13. If appropriate, support hazardous materials containment response and damage assessment using available capabilities, and coordinate with on-scene field response through the ICS. 4.14. Ensure that nonhazardous materials, particularly small vehicle fluid spills, are removed from the transportation facility--initially travel lanes/tracks--as quickly as possible. 2. Address 4.15. Attend regular briefings at the incident site on the situation, emergency incident action plan, response objectives, and strategy, with full needs and opportunity for transportation contributions and identification of requests resources and capabilities to support the response effort and support action plan. (continued). 4.16. Perform damage assessment responsibilities for affected transportation system elements. 4.17. Make/recommend decisions regarding closures, contraflow operations, restrictions, and priority repairs. 4.18. Coordinate assessments and decisions made regarding the operational capabilities of the transportation system with affected parties (emergency responders; local, state, and federal government; etc.). 4.19. Initiate priority clean-up, repair, and restoration activities, including the use of contractors and emergency procurement authorities. 4.20. Review and, as necessary, terminate existing work zone activities and/or closures to the extent possible. 4.21. Obtain incident status briefings and anticipate changing conditions (wind direction, weather, plume direction, etc.). 4.22. Based on all available information, develop detours and diversions (as necessary) to direct traffic safely away from the affected area and/or damaged infrastructure. 4.23. Prioritize and clearly communicate incident requirements so that resources can be efficiently matched, typed, and mobilized to support emergency operations. 4.24. Initiate traffic management operations and control strategies. 4.25. Provide public information/traveler alerts on the status of the transportation system. 4.26. Assign personnel to local/regional and State EOCs to coordinate with and assist public safety agencies and other agencies involved in disaster response and recovery efforts. 4.27. Support communications between transportation personnel and their families/friends. 5.1. **Evaluate the need for additional resources and if assistance RESPOND- Evaluate the need for should be requested from other states using interstate mutual- 05 additional assistance aid and assistance agreements, such as the EMAC.** from neighboring 5.2. **If the incident overwhelms state and mutual-aid resources, the states, jurisdictions, governor should request federal assistance and/or deploy the and/or the federal State Department of Military/National Guard.** government.

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Resource Guide 121 Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS RESPOND Not In Completed Started Progress 3. Manage RESPOND- Make/support the 6.1. Determine the probability of impact (depending on the nature evacuation/ 06 decision to of event). shelter-in- evacuate/shelter-in- 6.2. Estimate the effects on the geographic area and classes of people place/ place/quarantine and materials to be evacuated/sheltered-in-place/or quarantined. quarantine. people within an area, 6.3. Consider the timing of the event and lead time to initiate the latter for a evacuation, shelter-in-place, or quarantine. pandemic. 6.4. Consider weather conditions and their potential impacts on evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine. 6.5. Evaluate the economic impacts of evacuation/shelter-in-place/or quarantine to the public and private sectors. 6.6. Determine the condition and availability of evacuation routes or shelter-in-place or quarantine control points. 6.7. Determine whether neighboring jurisdictions have made evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine decisions. 6.8. Determine the population potentially affected by the evacuation, shelter-in-place, or evacuation, including jurisdictions that will host those evacuated or quarantined. 6.9. Determine the availability and safety of personnel to support the evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine. 6.10. Determine whether to deploy separate teams to notify residents and ensure their evacuation/shelter-in-place, or use other means to notify people in quarantined areas. 6.11. Consider the personal needs of those evacuated/sheltered-in- place/quarantined and the need for vehicle servicing, particularly fuel. 6.12. Consider whether to terminate power and other utilities for safety. 4. Implement RESPOND- Issue 7.1. Issue evacuation/shelter-in-place/or quarantine order through emergency 07 evacuation/shelter-in- established communication systems and protocols. response place/quarantine order. 7.2. Notify service organizations, local, regional, state, and federal actions. stakeholders, including sheltering organizations, as applicable. RESPOND- Take response 8.1. Implement ICS and chain of command and/or UC to create an 08 actions. integrated team of multidisciplinary and multi-jurisdictional stakeholders. 8.2. Implement primary and (as needed) secondary command posts. 8.3. Deploy transit resources to support evacuation including accommodating vulnerable populations evacuated/sheltered-in- place/quarantined. 8.4. Deploy resources to accommodate pets on transit vehicles and/or in shelters. 8.5. Enforce evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine order. The Emergency Operations Team should engage public safety officials in going door-to-door to ensure residents know of an evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine order and are complying. 8.6. Place en route services along evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine route. 8.7. Arrange for emergency services within the shelter-in-place/ quarantine area as needed 8.8. Open evacuation routes to maximize throughput (i.e., close toll operations, work zones). 8.9. Activate mutual-aid agreements. 8.10. Determine the need for and deploy emergency medical and other support staff staged along the evacuation routes or attached to those working with vulnerable populations, or within or near the shelter-in-place/quarantine area. 8.11. Determine the need for and deploy debris-removal crews to clear blocked highways and/or other transportation facilities. 8.12. Determine the need for and as needed deploy sanitation crews with mobile comfort stations (e.g., portable toilets, wash areas). 8.13. Coordinate local evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine incident action plans with the designated incident commander in the field and the EOC/TMC. 8.14. Field and EOC commanders should coordinate evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine incident action plans with neighboring jurisdictions and the state or neighboring state(s). 8.15. EOC should obtain updated information frequently and communicate this information to those evacuated/sheltered-in- place/quarantined throughout the event. 8.16. Set up contraflow operations and continue to monitor contraflow operations to ensure evacuation traffic is flowing safely and efficiently. (continued on next page)

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122 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS RESPOND Not In Completed Started Progress 8.17. Use HOV lanes, reversible lanes, and frontage roads for evacuation traffic. 8.18. Coordinate and communicate contraflow and other special operations with neighboring jurisdictions. 8.19. Coordinate with the next higher level of government to ensure unmet transportation resource needs are identified and requests for additional support are made. 8.20. Control access to evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine routes and manage traffic flow. 8.21. Control access to a confinement area to prevent unauthorized entry. 8.22. Include strategies for emergency responders, transit vehicles, and other essential equipment to move inbound against the predominant outbound flow of traffic. 8.23. Provide trained personnel to support the evacuation route or shelter-in-place/quarantine area (e.g., food, first aid, fuel, information). 9.1. Deploy personnel and field equipment. RESPOND- Deploy response 9.2. Ensure field personnel make frequent contact with the EOC 09 teams. through the ICS. 9.3. Address activation of the TMC if it is not already operational (e.g., during normally inactive periods). 10.1. Brief national, state, and local authorities and personnel (such RESPOND- Communicate as transit and health agencies and FCs) at regular intervals to 10 evacuation/shelter-in- ensure all parties are provided with accurate, timely, and place/quarantine comprehensive information. order and incident 10.2. Hold regular media briefings to inform the media about management evacuation routes, traffic and road conditions, shelter/shelter- measures. in-place/quarantine locations, and other pertinent information to communicate to the public in a timely manner. 10.3. Disseminate accurate information pertaining to 4. Implement evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine orders in a clear fashion emergency and timely manner to avoid shadow or unnecessary evacuations response or unnecessarily lengthy evacuation trips. actions. 10.4. Implement a briefing schedule with ranking representatives from (continued). each stakeholder agency participating in the event. 10.5. Inform evacuees of available transport modes, how to access them and if there are any restrictions on what evacuees may carry with them. 10.6. Inform evacuees of when transportation assistance will begin, end, and the frequency of departure at designated pick-up locations. 10.7. Inform evacuees of their destination before they board public transport. 10.8. Inform the public and/or family members of the evacuees' destinations. 10.9. Identify established websites, hotlines, text messaging groups, etc., where people can get answers to their questions and concerns. 10.10. In the event of a shelter-in-place or quarantine, inform people of the nature of the danger and actions they should take, 10.11. Address communicating security measures to the public. 10.12. Identify support services for vulnerable populations. 10.13. Communicate critical operational changes to the EOC and the public. 10.14. Communicate information to evacuees on the availability of nonpublic shelters, such as hotels. 10.15. Keep shelter operations informed of the location and status of other shelters. 10.16. Regularly reinforce, internally and externally, that persons involved in any way with the evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine must direct all but the most basic inquiries to the JIC. 10.17. Personnel working on the evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine must maintain effective communications at all times to coordinate movements, share real-time information, and track deployments.

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Resource Guide 123 Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS RESPOND Not In Completed Started Progress 10.18. Establish processes to ensure redundant communications systems are available during the evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine because the event may damage or disable primary communication systems. 10.19. Program DMSs, permanent and portable, as necessary to provide accurate, up-to-date information. 10.20. Program HAR subsystems to provide accurate, up-to-date information. 4. Implement 10.21. Program 5-1-1 systems to provide accurate, up-to-date emergency information. response 10.22. Relay traffic condition information to the EOC. actions. 10.23. Ensure 9-1-1 operators are fully informed of conditions so they (continued). can respond to callers with accurate, up-to-date information. 10.24. Use ITS resources during an evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine to collect data and as a tool to communicate and coordinate with those evacuated/sheltered-in- place/quarantined, evacuation operations personnel, partners, and other stakeholders. 10.25. In a shelter-in-place or quarantine area, use ITS to detect unnecessary movements that might result in innocent people being further jeopardized. 11.1. Monitor traffic conditions on evacuation/shelter-in- 5. Continue RESPOND- Monitor response place/quarantine reentry routes and make operational response. 11 efforts. adjustments to maximize throughput. 11.2. Monitor how the event that triggered the evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine is progressing and if there are any changes to earlier predictions of its effects. 11.3. Monitor the conditions of the roadway (e.g., for debris or flooding) so that those evacuated/sheltered-in-place/quarantined can be prepared and rerouted if necessary. 11.4. Monitor evacuation/reentry operations of motorized transport, rail, air, waterway, and other modes of transportation to determine the adequacy of available resources. 11.5. Track the destination of vulnerable populations evacuated/sheltered-in-place/quarantined to notify friends and family of their location and to develop a plan to return them to their original locations once the area has been deemed safe for reentry 11.6. Monitor the number of those evacuated/sheltered-in- place/quarantined and those moved by means other than personal vehicles to ensure that additional equipment and operators (such as buses and drivers or helicopters and pilots) are requested and supplied quickly if needed. This information should also aid in developing the reentry plan, as the same transportation resources will likely be required for that operation. 11.7. Monitor traffic counters and cameras. 11.8. Monitor pipelines, viaducts, etc., for potential damage. 12.1. Mobilize personnel and resources for the next operational period. RESPOND- Prepare for next 12 operational period. 13.1. *Prepare for restoration of normal activities.* 6. Conclude RESPOND- Prepare 13.2. *Ensure provisions to address and validate the safe return of response. 13 for demobilization. resources to their original locations exist.* 13.3. *Develop processes for tracking resources and ensuring applicable reimbursement.* 13.4. *Develop plans to ensure responder safety during demobilization efforts.* 13.5. *Ensure accountability for compliance with mutual-aid provisions.* (continued on next page)

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124 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS RECOVER Not Started In Completed Progress 1.1. Conduct damage assessments, debris removal, hazardous 1. Restore RECOVER-01 Restore essential materials disposal, repair of roads and other transportation traffic services. facilities to restore essential services to the affected area. to affected area. 2.1. Establish routes to move traffic into, out of and/or around the RECOVER-02 Reestablish traffic affected area. Coordinate traffic management with restoration management in plans for affected communities and resumption of government affected area. operations and services through individual, private-sector, nongovernmental, and public assistance programs. 3.1. Define specifically who makes the decision to return or remove RECOVER-03 Allow reentry into shelter-in-place or quarantine restrictions. affected area and/or 3.2. Identify what factors will influence the decision. remove shelter-in- 3.3. Begin developing, coordinating, and executing service and site place or quarantine restoration plans for affected communities and resumption of restrictions. government operations and services through individual, private- sector, nongovernmental, and public assistance programs. 3.4. In short-term recovery, provide essential public health and safety services; restore interrupted utility and other essential services (as soon as safely possible); reestablish transportation routes, and provide food, shelter, and other essential services to those displaced by the event. 3.5. Long-term recovery may include the complete redevelopment of damaged areas. 3.6. Prioritize activities to conduct damage assessments, debris removal, hazardous materials disposal, repair of roads and other transportation facilities, restoration of transportation- support facilities to enable them to receive evacuees when it is safe to do so, and secure critical assets. 3.7. Estimate the damage to the areas to which the evacuees will return or shelter-in-place/quarantine restrictions were placed. 3.8. Determine if there is, as a result or consequence of an evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine, an outbreak of disease or any other health or medical issue that should be mitigated. 3.9. Determine if hazardous materials spills need to be cleaned up. 3.10. Determine if utilities are functioning (i.e., running water, electricity). 3.11. Ensure evacuation routes are clear of debris and safe for travel. 3.12. Determine if public transit systems are operational. 3.13. Identify any populations that should not be allowed to return because of medical, health, or public safety concerns. 3.14. Verify that injured or diseased people and animals have been attended to and recovered from the area. 3.15. Develop a strategy for to communicate reentry instructions to the public. 3.16. Determine if mutual-aid reentry should be done in phases. 3.17. Transport those who did not self-evacuate/shelter-in-place/ quarantine back to their place of residence or longer-term shelters if homes are uninhabitable. 3.18. Identify personnel, equipment and resources necessary to support reentry. 3.19. Inspect the impacted area and aid any victims who did not evacuate, shelter-in-place, or quarantine. 3.20. Ensure reentry plans address those people who were unable to evacuate themselves. Ensure a clear strategy exists for how, when, and to where these evacuees will be transported and how they may reach their final destination. 3.21. Ensure communication with those evacuated/sheltered-in- place/quarantined, who may be scattered among shelters, families' homes, and other areas outside of the immediate jurisdiction, can be accomplished effectively. 3.22. Communicate start and end times of reentry operations, including the days of the week, geographic areas covered, photo ID required to reenter, security checkpoints that are in place, available routes and maps, vehicle restrictions, and available services. 3.23. Determine whether ITS equipment, DMS, HAR, and 5-1-1 subsystems should be updated to provide information to evacuees reentering the area. 3.24. Traveler services, such as fuel, food, safe water, relief, and medical care, should be available along the highway routes as they were during the evacuation. 3.25. Attempt to return those evacuated/sheltered-in- place/quarantined to their points of origin using the same operator and same vehicle.

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Resource Guide 125 Table 8. (Continued). STEPS PHASE: ACTION ITEM SUPPORTING ACTIONS STATUS RECOVER Not Started In Completed Progress 3.26. Establish alternative plans for return in case the evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine lasts for days, weeks, or possibly longer. 3.27. Ensure operators and passengers have picture identifications to return to their points of origin. 1. Restore 3.28. Coordinate reentry plans with transportation and public safety traffic officials to staff reentry routes adequately. to affected 3.29. Coordinate operations to identify missing persons who might area not have evacuated/sheltered-in-place/ quarantined and been (continued). lost in the event or failed to return after the event, particularly children separated from their families. 4.1. Develop an approach to infrastructure repair/replacement and RECOVER-04 Conduct emergency decontamination, determining what can be done quickly and repairs. what will require more time. 5.1. Identify who is responsible for conducting After-Action 2. Identify RECOVER-05 Perform After- Reviews and for ensuring necessary changes are made to and Action Review and plans and SOPs and communicated to staff. implement After-Action 5.2. Conduct a review of how the evacuation/shelter-in-place/ lessons Reports. quarantine was executed and determine how it could learned. have been improved. Each agency should review its actions. When multiple agencies are involved in an evacuation/shelter- in-place/quarantine, conduct a joint After-Action Review to address how well agencies worked together and what improvements can be made in future joint operations. 5.3. Each After-Action Review should be shared with decisionmakers and agency personnel and should include recommendations for improvements that should be considered and implemented quickly. 5.4. Conduct an after-action review, a formal meeting of operation participants to assess actions, determine follow-up items, and develop recommendations for improving future operations. 5.5. Results of the after-action review and individually submitted After-Action Reviews should be combined for a jurisdiction's or agency's final report. 5.6. Use After-Action Reviews and After-Action Reports to determine if changes should be made to plans and procedures. 6.1. Establish a policy for the evacuation/shelter-in- RECOVER-06 Return to readiness. place/quarantine team members' home organizations regarding recovery time and time to participate in After-Action Reviews and other return-to-readiness activities. 6.2. Determine what equipment and supplies need to be restocked. 6.3. Determine what infrastructure needs to be repaired or replaced. 6.4. Determine what new information needs to be communicated to the public to maintain their awareness to be prepared. 6.5. Begin transitioning the system from an operations cycle back to a state of planning and preparedness. 6.6. Continue data collection and begin analyses of response activities. 6.7. Identify evacuation costs and reimbursable expenditures. Account for services such as equipment rehabilitation, restocking of expendable supplies, transportation to original storage or usage locations, overtime costs for public safety and transportation officials, materials used in support of evacuation, and contract labor and equipment. 6.8. Begin request for reimbursement processes from state and federal governments as applicable. 6.9. Implement a system to track personnel, supplies, and equipment costs to meet the requirements of the reimbursing agencies. 6.10. Work with FEMA and FHWA to ensure proper documentation is being used before submitting reimbursement requests.