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APPENDIX C Emergency Response Stakeholder Responsibilities25 Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities Federal Agencies U.S. Department of Serves as head of federal ESF#1. Transportation (U.S.DOT) Federal Highway While FHWA does not own or operate roads (except on Administration federal property), it is tasked with aiding the intelligent (FHWA) operation of those facilities by the agencies that do own and operate them. FHWA publishes accepted practices and planning documents to demonstrate what is being done around the country, including regarding traffic incident and emergency management. Other U.S.DOT Depending on the mode affected by an incident, other Administrations Administrations may be stakeholders responsible for coordinating their agencies' activities. Department of DHS is responsible overall for homeland security and Homeland Security EM/ER, as articulated in its mission statement: (DHS) We will lead the unified national effort to secure America. We will prevent and deter terrorist attacks and protect against and respond to threats and hazards to the Nation. We will secure our national borders while welcoming lawful immigrants, visitors, and trade. (DHS, 2008) Federal Emergency As a major department of DHS, FEMA leads the effort to Management Agency prepare the nation for all hazards and effectively (FEMA) manage federal response and recovery efforts following any national incident. FEMA also initiates proactive mitigation activities, trains first responders, and manages the National Flood Insurance Program and the U.S. Fire Administration. FEMA is a major provider of EM policy and financial support for emergency operations. Transportation TSA, also a major part of DHS, is primarily responsible Security for the security of airports and the flying public, Administration (TSA) highways, commercial vehicle operations, and other modes. 25 Most of this material was adapted from the TIM/Quick Clearance Toolkit, by the same principal author. (I- 95CC, 2009). 140

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Emergency Response Stakeholder Responsibilities 141 Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities Regional Organizations Regional Coalitions While there are many multi-state regional organizations in the nation, one of particular interest is the I-95 Corridor Coalition. Of most immediate concern to the 2010 Guide is the set of four Highway Operations Groups (HOGs) of the Coalition. These provide information exchange, promote standardization of practices, and provide training. A second very significant regional organization in the Coalition is TRANSCOM, which is a multi-state/agency operation that serves as the communications hub for the Corridor. The Corridor is currently operating a similar system called STIX (Southern Traffic Incident eXchange) for the four southern states (FL, GA, NC, and SC), with the hub located in the Atlanta NaviGAtor TMC. State, Territorial, and Tribal Agencies State Transportation The state transportation agency (usually a DOT) is Agency or Territorial/ responsible for the operations and maintenance of the Tribal Equivalent highway system. It normally conducts overall planning and implementation of traffic incident management programs. In some regions they are also involved in developing, implementing, and operating traffic management centers (TMCs); providing intelligent transportation systems (ITS); as well as managing incident response patrols. Specific responsibilities-- particularly maintenance forces (including Asset Maintenance/Management Contractors) and/or incident response patrols for on-scene activities--are as follows: Clear minor incidents, Coordinate and provide for vehicle and spilled cargo removal, Mitigate incidental vehicle fluid spills, Create interagency agreements and open roads policies, Promote quick clearance laws and policies for vehicle/cargo removal, Promote public information campaigns on quick clearance, Support public-private towing agreements, Construct vehicle relocation areas, such as crash investigation sites, Set traffic incident clearance performance goals, Coordinate incident management and responder training, Assume a leadership role in traffic incident management in general and quick clearance in particular, and Work with emergency management departments to provide transportation services in ER. Department of The DEM (often called by other names) has the statutory Emergency responsibility for overall emergency management at the Management (DEM) state level. The State DEM ensures that the state is prepared to respond to emergencies, recover from them, and mitigate their impacts. It typically operates a State Emergency Operations Center (SEOC), which is activated for Governor-declared emergencies (GDE) in response to any major hazard. A number of other state agencies take part in both developing State Emergency Operations Plans (EOPs) and helping staff the SEOC when it is activated.

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142 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities State Patrol (SP) The State Patrol is generally the state's largest traffic law enforcement agency, except for large metropolitan police forces. SPs are typically responsible for managing the majority of incidents on all state routes. They are involved in all aspects of TIM from incident detection to clearance and in ER from response to recovery. Department of Military The National Guard is generally called up by the (DM) or National governor to keep order, protect life and property, and Guard otherwise assist in emergencies, particularly in evacuations and recovery operations. In some very serious catastrophes, the DM or National Guard may be federalized and operate under the U.S. Department of Defense. Department of Law DLE's role in TIM/ER is generally confined to criminal Enforcement (DLE) investigations. Department of The state DEP is the state's lead agency for Environmental environmental management. The department Protection (DEP) administers regulatory programs and issues permits for air, water, and waste management. Emergency EOCs are the organizations primarily charged with Operations Center managing emergencies. They are typically operated at (EOC) the state level (SEOC) for major disasters, as well as at the regional (usually county) level (LEOC) for more locally focused incidents or to coordinate with other EOCs for larger incidents. EOCs may be organized in a number of ways, but most tend to follow the guideline outlined in the National Response Framework and CPG 101, namely the 15 Emergency Support Functions, or ESFs. Typically, the SEOC is only activated for a GDE. Regional EOCs may be partially or fully activated by designated local authorities, generally the board of county commissioners (for a general state of emergency), mayor or county administrator (for local emergencies), and so forth. Each EOP should make clear what the activation levels are, who is activated for each level, and who has the authority to direct the activation. Intelligence Fusion Fusion Centers are fairly new players on the national Center (FC) scene. Following 9/11, it was realized that better collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence data and information was needed. At this writing, there are 43 FCs nationwide (see Appendix F for the current locations), some at the state level, but most actually acting as regional centers. The FCs were already linked to (primarily) security organizations. Indeed, some are co-located with Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) offices, while others are in EOCs or in standalone locations, The U.S.DOT has realized that this resource is valuable to TIM and ER as well, and a study was under way at this writing to define how best FCs, as well as EOCs, can be linked to TMCs. Appendix F also illustrates these linkages graphically. In Kentucky, the FC is co-located with the TMC. Joint Many states have joint communications groups that Telecommunications operate the state law enforcement radio system or some Centers common telecommunications system. In some states, this group participates in the state law enforcement dispatch centers. Ideally, these should be linked to TMCs as well. In Florida, and probably elsewhere, several are co-located with TMCs.

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Emergency Response Stakeholder Responsibilities 143 Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities Authorities Transportation authorities operate much like states or territories and perform similar functions; however, they are semi-autonomous. Local Agencies Law Enforcement Generally, limited-access and state highways are part of (Police and Sheriffs) the national transportation system and are primarily patrolled and responded to by the State Patrol; however, some limited-access routes and most state roads within local municipality city limits are the responsibility of the city police. General law enforcement TIM/ER responsibilities are Assist in incident detection; Secure the incident scene; Serve as incident commander; Clear minor incidents quickly; Assist disabled motorists; Provide emergency medical assistance until help arrives; Direct traffic through/around the incident; Conduct crash investigations; Maintain private towing contracts; Ensure rapid response of recovery and towing contractors; Safeguard personal property in all emergencies; and Promote laws, policies, practices, and public awareness campaigns to promote quick clearance and recovery. Fire Rescue Fire and rescue services are provided by local fire departments and by surrounding fire departments through mutual-aid agreements. The fire department is the primary emergency response incident command agency for fire suppression, hazardous materials spills, rescue, and extrication of trapped crash victims. Typical fire department TIM/ER responsibilities include Protect the incident scene, Serve as incident commander during fire-related stages, Provide traffic control until police or state transportation agency arrival, Provide emergency medical care, Provide initial HAZMAT response and containment, Fire suppression, Rescue crash victims from wrecked vehicles, Rescue crash victims from contaminated environments, Arrange transportation for the injured, and Assist in incident clearance and emergency recovery. Emergency Medical The primary responsibility of EMS is the triage, Services (EMS) treatment, and transport of crash victims. Private companies often provide patient transport under contract. Typical TIM/ER roles and responsibilities assumed by EMS can include Provide emergency medical care; Serve as incident commander for medical emergencies; Determine destination and transportation requirements for the injured; Coordinate victim evacuation with fire, police, and ambulance or airlift;

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144 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities Determine approximate cause of injuries for the trauma center; and Remove medical waste from incident scenes. In some locations, EMS is an integral part of Fire Departments; indeed, some fire fighters are dual certified as fire fighters and EMS paramedics. Medical Examiner/ By law, Medical Examiners (or Coroners) are Coroner responsible for investigating deaths that result from anything other than natural causes. As such, they play an important role in investigating fatal accidents that occur on roadways and in other emergencies. They can cooperate with other responders by enabling those responders to remove deceased persons from the roadway, and even from the scene--under mutually agreeable circumstances, of course. City and County City and county transportation agencies have roles Public Works and similar to the state transportation agencies, but at the Traffic Engineering local level. They are responsible for the highways not included under the state's highway system. Transit Agencies Transit vehicles are a critical component for moving (public or private, large groups of people to be evacuated, sheltered-in- including school place, or quarantined. It is important to have buses) agreements in place to activate fleets to carry out this function. Operators need to be trained in fundamental care for disabled and transportation-disadvantaged persons. Private Partners Towing and Recovery Towing and recovery service providers are responsible Operators for the safe and efficient removal of wrecked or disabled vehicles and debris from the incident scene. Their typical responsibilities include Remove vehicles from incident scene, Protect victims' property and vehicles, Remove debris from the roadway, and Provide transportation for uninjured vehicle occupants. Towing and recovery companies that respond to highway incidents are indispensable components of all traffic incident management programs. Even programs that include incident response patrols with relocation capability depend on towing and recovery service providers. Challenges facing the towing and recovery industry are unique. A recent state-of-the-practice scanning tour offers some good ideas for innovative towing and wrecker operations (I-95CC, 2007b).26 HAZMAT Contractors Hazardous materials contractors are hired by emergency or transportation authorities to clean up and dispose of toxic or hazardous materials. Their traffic incident management role and responsibilities include Determine proper/prudent method of hazardous material cleanup and disposal, Dispose of hazardous materials or provide on-site cleanup, and Participate in the unified command at HAZMAT scenes. Asset Maintenance/ When used by the state transportation agency, these Management contractors serve in the same role as the agency's Contractors maintenance forces. It is important in drafting these contracts to clearly define contractor responsibilities for ER and TIM. 26 Visit Default.aspx

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Emergency Response Stakeholder Responsibilities 145 Stakeholder Emergency Management Responsibilities Motor Carrier Motor carriers, particularly through their professional Companies and trade associations, can improve awareness of good TIM practices to their drivers, such as assisting in quick clearance, which can lead to better incident management overall. Insurance Companies These insure people, vehicles, and property, but they can also promote safe practices in incident response. Traffic Media The media report on incidents, alert motorists, provide alternate route information, and provide other critical information. They are a close partner, and the relationships with incident and emergency management officials must be based on mutual trust. Associations Volunteer The American Red Cross and many other associations Organizations are vital partners in emergency response. Their specific role and responsibilities should be well defined in the EOPs. Automobile These organizations assist agencies, support TIM/EM Associations programs, and inform motorists of good practices. Technical Societies These assist agencies, support (mainly) TIM programs, (e.g., ITS State and provide training. Chapter, State Section ITE) Associations of Cities, Same as the foregoing, but more generally involved in Counties, Sheriffs, EM. Police, EMS, etc. Community/Corridor While only present in a few states, CTSTs assist Traffic Safety Teams agencies, support TIM programs, and provide safety (CTSTs) programs. They could be useful in ER as well. Chambers of These could assist agencies by supporting TIM/EM Commerce programs and engaging businesses in good preparedness practices. Other Organizations and People Citizens for Better These groups can assist agencies, support TIM/EM Transportation programs, and, most importantly, lobby for favorable (state-by-state) legislation. Citizens Groups These could be useful channels for outreach, both through speaking engagements as well as programmatic undertakings by the organizations. Individuals and All should be encouraged to practice good Families preparedness, such as having generators, adequate emergency supplies and equipment; making escape and evacuation plans and arrangements for pets; stocking up on fuel and food and medicines; and identifying vital papers in advance of impending emergencies.