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APPENDIX D Key Emergency Response Definitions Below is a list of key terms that the authors perceive to be particularly germane to state trans- portation agencies and their counterparts at the other levels of government. Most definitions are nearly exact quotes, but in some cases, words in brackets were added for further clarification or expansion. The sources used for the definitions are indicated in parentheses. Further explana- tory notes are in the third column. Note that the National Incident Management System and most other policy and guidance documents referred to in this 2010 Guide contain definition lists as well. Term Definition Comment Catastrophic Any natural or man-made incident, incident including terrorism, that results in extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/or government functions. A catastrophic incident could result in sustained regional or national impacts over a prolonged time period; almost immediately exceeds resources normally available to state, [territorial,] local, tribal, and private-sector authorities in the affected area; and significantly interrupts governmental operations and emergency services to such an extent that national security could be threatened. (All Hazards Consortium, draft definition) Emergency Any incident, whether natural or man- In this 2010 Guide, an made, that requires responsive action to emergency can exist protect life or property. Under the at a local, regional, or Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and state level once Emergency Assistance Act, an declared by emergency means any occasion or appropriate authority, instance for which, in the determination even if not a Stafford of the president, federal assistance is Act incident. needed to supplement state and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the United States. (Stafford Act and NIMS) 146
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Key Emergency Response Definitions 147 Term Definition Comment Emergency [Paraphrased] The broad class of Emergency response management agencies or people involved in the is a subset of practice of managing emergencies and emergency other incidents of all kinds. management. (NIMS, 2008) Emergency A national interstate mutual-aid The 2010 Guide Management agreement that enables states to share includes guidance on Assistance resources during times of disaster. the appropriate Compact EMAC has grown to become the application of the (EMAC) nation's system for providing mutual aid EMAC network. It is through operational procedures and also available for protocols that have been validated local mutual-aid through experience. EMAC is assistance in states administered by NEMA, the National that have passed Emergency Management Association, enabling legislation. headquartered in Lexington, KY. EMAC acts as a complement to the federal disaster response system, providing timely and cost-effective relief to states requesting assistance from assisting member states. [Adapted from FEMA-EMAC, 2007] Emergency Includes federal, state, territorial, tribal, The 2010 Guide uses management/ sub-state regional, and local emergency responder response governments, private-sector and emergency personnel organizations, critical infrastructure response personnel owners and operators, for the generic nongovernmental organizations references. These (NGOs), and all other organizations and represent a broader individuals who assume an emergency community than first management role. Also known as responders. Emergency Responder. (See Section 2 (6), Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (2002). (NIMS, 2008) Emergency The planned and actual response by Traffic incidents are response multiple agencies to incidents that can assumed to be include acts of terrorism, wildland and included. urban fires, floods, hazardous material spills, nuclear accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergencies. [Adapted from (NIMS, 2008). The phases of ER are plan, prepare, respond, and recover. (NRF, 2008)] Emergency A coordinated, performance-oriented, Transportation all-hazard approach to support the Operations development of a formal program for the (ETO) improved management of traffic incidents, natural disasters, security events, and other emergencies on the highway system. Focuses on an enhanced role for state departments of transportation (DOTs) as participants with the public safety community in an interagency process. [Adapted from NCHRP Report 525, Volume 6, 2005.]
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148 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Term Definition Comment First Refers to those individuals who, in the When used responder early stages of an incident, are generically in the responsible for protecting and 2010 Guide, first preserving life, property, evidence, and responder is not the environment, including emergency capitalized. In this response providers as defined in generic sense, state Section 2 of the Homeland Security Act DOT and counterpart of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 101), as well as employees may be emergency management, public health, considered first clinical care, public works, and other responders. skilled support personnel (such as equipment operators) who provide immediate support services during prevention, response, and recovery operations (HSPD-8). Fusion Center Centers that integrate various streams FCs are referred to of information and intelligence, including differently in the that flowing from the federal various states, see government, state, [territorial,] tribal, Appendix F for the and local, governments, as well as the current centers. private sector, providing a more FHWA is preparing a accurate picture of risks to people, guideline for Fusion economic infrastructure, and Center/TMC/EOC communities that can be developed and linkages/integration. translated into protective (e.g., preventative or responsive) actions. The ultimate goal of fusion is to prevent man-made (terrorist) attacks and to respond to natural disasters and man- made threats quickly and efficiently should they occur. [Paraphrased from Rollins, 2008.] Incident An occurrence or event, natural or man- Traffic incidents are made, that requires a response to considered as protect life or property. Incidents, for included, even if example, can include major disasters, minor. emergencies, terrorist attacks, terrorist threats, civil unrest, wildland and urban fires, floods, hazardous materials spills, nuclear accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms, tsunamis, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergencies, and other occurrences requiring an emergency response. (NIMS, 2008) Incident, See traffic incident. traffic Incident A standardized on-scene emergency The core of the Command management construct specifically National Incident System (ICS) designed to provide for the adoption of Management System. an integrated organizational structure Also see Unified that reflects the complexity and Command. demands of single or multiple incidents, without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries. ICS is the combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications operating within a common organizational structure, designed to aid in the management of resources during
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Key Emergency Response Definitions 149 Term Definition Comment incidents. It is used for all kinds of emergencies and is applicable to small as well as large and complex incidents. ICS is used by various jurisdictions and functional agencies, both public and private, to organize field-level incident management operations. (NIMS, 2008) Major disaster Any natural catastrophe (including any The 2010 Guide hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, actually treats wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, catastrophic event as earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, a more severe event mudslide, snowstorm, or drought) or, than a major disaster. regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or For example, explosion in any part of the United Hurricane Rita might States, which in the determination of the be considered as a president causes damage of sufficient major disaster while severity and magnitude to warrant major Katrina was, and disaster assistance under [the Stafford] continues to be, Act to supplement the efforts and catastrophic. available resources of states, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused thereby. (Stafford Act) Security Actions that can be taken to avoid or Some security counter- mitigate security threats, the countermeasures can measures cornerstones of which are detect, deter, actually impede deny, and defend. emergency response, for example the security need to have secure, qualified identifications of responders entering an incident scene, might delay or even bar responders. This should be considered in the EOPs. Traffic Any nonrecurring event that reduces Although incident roadway capacity or an abnormal emergencies are not increase in demand. Such events mentioned, they are include traffic crashes, disabled included. vehicles, spilled cargo, highway maintenance and reconstruction projects, and special nonemergency events (e.g., ball games, concerts, or any other event that significantly affects roadway operations). (FHWA, 2010) Traffic A tool to achieve and maintain public TIM should be a incident safety, travel efficiency, and air quality subset of emergency management standards by reducing the impacts of management. traffic incidents. (I-95CC, 2009 ) Unified An application of ICS used when there UC is thus one form Command is more than one agency with incident of ICS that engages a (UC) jurisdiction or when incidents cross cooperative political jurisdictions. Agencies work command structure together through the designated with shared authority. members of the UC, often the senior person from agencies and/or disciplines participating in the UC, to establish a common set of objectives and strategies and a single Incident Action Plan (IAP). (NIMS, 2008)