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Institutional Context for Emergency Response 15 Figure 4. Implementation of HSPD-8, National Preparedness. Figure 5 demonstrates how agencies can use the 2010 Guide in conjunction with CPG 101 to comply with federal policies and guidelines. The Guide provides a filter to help transportation agencies identify new or changed requirements for the EOP (EM and agency versions). Refer to CPG 101 for the actual updating steps. Emergency response planning is an ongoing process for state transportation agencies. The first pass through it, which most state transportation agencies have largely accomplished, is the most challenging. The remainder of this 2010 Guide thus focuses on the ER planning process itself. Agencies should recognize, however, that there will never be a perfect, all-encompassing EOP. Rather, the 2010 Guide's primary intent is to help the agencies prioritize and implement their ER planning efforts. What is required is that the agencies, working together, be nimble to react to exigencies not expressly addressed in the EOP. The ability to adapt to a wide range of emer- gencies is probably more useful because the hazards/threat matrix is infinite, as are the turns an emergency can take as it unfolds. Organizational Context The state transportation agency is clearly an important player in the EM/ER arena. Table 1 summarizes the stakeholders. Appendix C further describes the roles and responsibilities of these entities. Guiding Principles The 2010 Guide is itself tempered by several overarching principles, or tenets, as follows: · State transportation agencies should stay within principles of contemporary emergency man- agement thinking unless there is good reason to do otherwise. These principles include that the agency will Play a support role to the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA), play an active role in developing and exercising the State EOP, and should be the lead agency for ESF #1-- Transportation and play a significant role in other ESFs;
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16 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Figure 5. State transportation agency emergency response planning process using CPG 101.
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Institutional Context for Emergency Response 17 Table 1. Emergency management stakeholders. Category Stakeholder Federal Agencies U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S.DOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Other U.S.DOT modal administrations as appropriate Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Other DHS security agencies as appropriate Regional Coalitions Ad hoc regional coalitions; see Appendix C for details State, Territorial, and Tribal State Transportation Agency or Territorial/Tribal Equivalent: Agencies (including Emergency Management Office statewide authorities) Traffic Operations Office/ITS Section Planning Office Maintenance Office Safety Office Motor Vehicle Compliance Office State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) State Patrol (SP) Department of Military or National Guard Department of Law Enforcement (DLE) Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) Intelligence Fusion Center (FC), also regional Joint Telecommunications Centers Authorities, such as Expressway Authorities Local Agencies Emergency Management Agency (EMA), EOC, and Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) Law Enforcement (Police and Sheriffs) Fire/Rescue Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Medical Examiner/Coroner City and County Public Works and Traffic Engineering Transit Agencies (public or private, including school buses) Private Partners Towing and Recovery Operators HAZMAT Contractors Asset Maintenance/Management Contractors Motor Carrier Companies Insurance Companies Traffic Media (continued on next page)
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18 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Table 1. (Continued). Category Stakeholder Associations Volunteer Organizations (see Appendix C for details) Automobile Associations Technical Societies (ITS State Chapter, State Section ITE) Associations of Cities, Counties, Sheriffs, Police, EMS, etc. Community/Corridor Traffic Safety Teams (CTSTs) Chambers of Commerce Other Organizations Citizens for Better Transportation (state-by-state) and People Citizens' Groups Individuals and Families Have an agencywide emergency operations plan (which all agencies do not as yet have); Ensure plans and procedures complement the state's overall emergency structure and plan(s); Ensure plans adhere to an all-hazards approach; Use the CPG 101 emergency management planning cycle (plan, prepare, respond, recover), and within that framework, prepare for specific response activities; and Actively participate in Unified Command during incidents. · Acknowledge that different state transportation agencies view their response roles differently and recognize these different perspectives and approaches. · Recognize the need for transportation agencies to understand the basic concepts of the Inci- dent Command System (ICS), including Unified Command (UC), as defined in NIMS. · Encourage transportation agencies to be full players within their state emergency management community and their role in providing the support needed for all applicable functions, partic- ipating actively in unified command, and participating in multi-agency communications and coordination. In most major incidents, the state transportation agency will fulfill a support role in the emergency response effort and receive direction from the state or some higher govern- ment authority. Using this 2010 Guide, a transportation agency can assess how well its existing agency proto- cols and procedures align with NIMS/NRF and within the context of transportation-accepted practices. Some of the issues addressed in the Guide include · Part of the NIMS compliance regimen includes training. Do NIMS training requirements cover the needs of transportation agency responders? How should an agency training program be structured? · What does NIMS compliance mean for state transportation agencies--beyond training? · Transportation agencies operate within a complex of institutional relationships. How does an agency typically relate to, and interact with, other state agencies in an emergency, as well as with federal and local agencies? · What are the response considerations between state transportation agencies in states that bor- der one another? Or for agencies in states that border Canada or Mexico? · How do the different modal interests in state transportation agencies coordinate within the agency and with their modal clients? · What is the role of headquarters versus the districts or other nonheadquarters offices when it comes to response? Are senior headquarters staff sufficiently briefed and trained to understand the agency's response roles and responsibilities?