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SECTION 4 Develop an Emergency Preparedness Program This section explains the emergency planning process and the all-hazards approach to emer- gency management; it also emphasizes that the process is a continuous one, not something done once and then shelved. In the overall emergency management/risk management, all-hazards approach, the state transportation agency has two distinct roles: (1) developing and maintain- ing its own EOP and (2) supporting the State EOP. The state transportation agency also will work to mitigate consequences. Executing the plan in actual emergencies is more significant than the plan itself. This notwith- standing, the approach taken in this section is to deal with the entire planning process from the perspective of the agency's own EOP. This includes four main phases: emergency planning, emergency preparedness, emergency response, and emergency recovery. Because the planning and preparedness phases are perhaps the best way to maximize the success and safety of the response and recovery efforts, these sections provide greater detail. Finally, as agencies begin this process, it is important to reinforce that this is not a standard. This is a suggested process derived from the relevant national directives, policies, and guidelines intro- duced in Sections 1 and 2. Even the Comprehensive Preparedness Guideline 101 is just that--a guideline. The discussions below do not attempt to replace or unnecessarily duplicate CPG 101, although some reference and duplication are necessary. More significantly, the 2010 Guide attempts to fill in gaps unique to transportation that are not explicit in CPG 101 and provides a means for state transportation agencies to perform self-assessments of their own emergency planning, preparedness, response, and recovery processes. Emergency Planning Phase The planning phase is arguably the most important step in developing and administering an effective emergency preparedness program. Without proper planning, emergency response per- sonnel can easily find themselves significantly hampered by the confusion and contradictory actions often encountered during complex emergency response activities. As state transporta- tion agencies assume greater levels of responsibility for managing large-scale evacuations in response to natural disasters, as well as no-notice evacuations, shelter-in-place, or quarantine in response to biological outbreaks, large-scale hazardous chemical releases, and WMD threats, the need for planning at the agency level also increases. Consistent with National Incident Manage- ment System (NIMS) and National Response Framework (NRF) requirements, an all-hazards approach to emergency planning must be taken to ensure the agency's ability to respond appro- priately to all emergency events. FEMA's Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101 (CPG 101, 2009), Developing and Maintain- ing State, Territorial, Tribal, and Local Government Emergency Plans, serves as the basis for much 23