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42 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Step Checklist Evaluate the adequacy of the state transportation agency's EOP by ensuring the agency has Formally approved and implemented the transportation-related provisions of the State EOP to ensure adoption of the plan and supporting materials. Established a connection between the State EOP and the agency EOP to ensure compatibility and consistency of common provisions. Step 7--Exercise the Plan and Evaluate Its Effectiveness Because plans guide the preparedness process, it is important that they are routinely tested through training, drills, and exercises. This is necessary not only to verify the accuracy of the EOP and its supporting procedures and to identify and address any potential gaps, but also to increase the state transportation agency's overall state of readiness, as well as that of its personnel and partners. Exercising the plan involves one phase, described below. PLAN Phase 19: Develop Coordinated Plan of Training Drills and Exercises Purpose. Ensure that state transportation personnel are trained to respond to emergencies. Actions. Distribute the plan to all necessary parties, including all members of the state trans- portation agency's emergency planning team and any outside agencies or jurisdictions that may be involved in emergency response efforts within the agency's region or that could be expected to call upon the agency to support response efforts in their regions. The agency's EPC should keep a record of all of the individuals and agencies to whom the plan was provided. It is recommended that the state transportation agency make a version of the Emergency Oper- ations Plan publicly accessible. Such transparency is good for accountability, for sharing with seldom-used response partners, and for securing necessary resources to carry out assigned respon- sibilities. Indeed, Sunshine laws may require that a copy of the EOP be posted on the agency's web- site or placed in some other publicly accessible location. Obviously, sensitive information should be in annexes that, while referenced in the public version, are not available to the public.15 Focus. Exercise and evaluate the EOP to determine its adequacy, feasibility, acceptability, completeness, and compliance with applicable guidance or regulatory requirements. CPG 101 defines each of these measures as follows: Adequacy: A plan can be considered adequate if the Scope and concept of planned response operations identify and address critical tasks effectively; Assigned mission can be accomplished while complying with guidance; and Assumptions are valid, reasonable, and comply with guidance. Feasibility: A plan can be considered feasible if the Organization can accomplish the assigned mission and critical tasks by using available resources within the time contemplated by the plan; and Available resources, including internal assets as well as those that can be gained through mutual-aid or existing state, regional, or federal assistance agreements, are allocated tasks and tracked by status (assigned, out of service, etc.). 15 Certain information may be classified, such as lists of critical infrastructure and weak points in systems; these should be placed in a supporting document that is deemed exempt from the Sunshine law. The posted version would thus be a redacted version.

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Develop an Emergency Preparedness Program 43 Acceptability: A plan can be considered acceptable if it Meets the needs and demands driven by the event, meets decisionmaker and public cost and time limitations, and is consistent with the law; and Can be justified in terms of the cost of resources and if its scale is proportional to mission requirements. Completeness: A plan can be considered complete if it Incorporates all tasks to be accomplished; Includes all required capabilities; Provides a complete picture of the sequence and scope of the planned response operation (i.e., what should happen, when, and at whose direction); Includes time estimates for achieving objectives; and Identifies success criteria and a desired end-state. Compliance with Guidance and Doctrine: A plan can be considered compliant with guid- ance and doctrine if it complies with all applicable guidance and regulatory requirements to the maximum extent possible. National Incident Management System Compliance Issues. To achieve NIMS compliance, Plan for and/or participate in an all-hazards exercise program (for example, HSEEP) that involves emergency management/response personnel from multiple disciplines and/or mul- tiple jurisdictions. Incorporate corrective actions into preparedness and response plans and procedures. Promote the integration of Incident Command, Multiagency Coordination System, and Public Information into appropriate exercises and evaluate the integration against associated target capa- bilities (refer to HSEEP, Volume III and the Exercise Evaluation Guides) (FEMA-HSEEP, 2007). https://hseep.dhs.gov/support/VolumeIII.pdf) Include nongovernmental organizations and the private sector in an all-hazards exercise pro- gram, when appropriate. Supporting Resources. NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 9: Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises, search for title at www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 7: System Security Awareness for Transportation Employees, search for title at www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs NIMS training courses available online at http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/NIMS TrainingCourses.shtm Step Observations The state transportation agency can begin to develop and administer training programs based on the degree to which the EOP meets each of these measures. Training, which is part of the pre- paredness process discussed in the next section, includes tabletop exercises and full-scale mock emergency drills that can be used to exercise the EOP at all levels and across all identified haz- ards and threats. The information and experience gained through such activities is often irre- placeable and the most effective means of preparing for actual response activities. Step Checklist To evaluate their processes for exercising the state transportation agency EOP and determine if additional effort is needed in this area, agencies should consider whether they have Developed a coordinated program of training, drills, and exercises to ensure that agency per- sonnel are trained to properly respond to different types of emergencies. Ensured the agency and its partners revised their plan as a result of these exercises (if indicated by the results of the exercises).