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44 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Step 8--Review, Revise, and Maintain the Plan The discussion of emergency planning concludes by further noting the importance of the plan review, revision, and overall maintenance process. Because emergency planning is a continuous process, and the participants involved in planning and preparing for, responding to, and recov- ering from emergencies often change from year to year, it is imperative that the state transporta- tion agencies establish mechanisms for ongoing review and revision of their EOPs--both the State EOP and the agency internal one(s). Reviewing, revising, and maintaining the EOPs require one phase, as described below. PLAN Phase 20: Establish Ongoing Review and Assessment Process for Transportation-Related Elements of State and State Transportation Agency EOPs and Supporting Materials Purpose. Ensure that the state and state transportation agency EOPs, procedures, and sup- porting materials are up to date. Actions. Establish minimum timeframes for review as well as the specific events (i.e., update of the State EOP, change of personnel, provision of new or additional resources, issuance of new regulatory requirements, change in regional demographics or hazard profile) that should prompt a review and possible revision of the EOP(s). Focus. Maintain accurate, relevant, and immediately useful plans and procedures. Supporting Resources. Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101 (CPG 101, 2009), divisions/npd/cpg_101_layout.pdf NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 6: Guide for Emergency Trans- portation Operations, search for title at Step Observations CPG 101 recommends that agencies review plans at least once every 2 years. Periodic practice exercises should be designed to test, even stress, the established processes to identify improve- ments needed. Step Checklist To evaluate their review, revision, and plan maintenance processes, state transportation agen- cies should consider whether they have Established an ongoing review and assessment process for transportation-related elements of State and agency EOPs and supporting materials to ensure that the agency's plans, procedures, and supporting materials remain relevant and up to date. Prepare for the Emergency The discussion of emergency preparedness and its role in the state transportation agency emer- gency management process must begin by revisiting Homeland Security Presidential Directive 8, National Preparedness (HSPD-8). HSPD-8 established . . . policies to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all-hazards preparedness goal, establishing mechanisms for improved delivery of Federal pre-

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Develop an Emergency Preparedness Program 45 paredness assistance to State and local governments, and outlining actions to strengthen preparedness capabilities of Federal, State, and local entities. Vision of the National The top NPG priorities are to implement the NIMS and the NRF, expand Preparedness Goal: regional collaboration, and implement a National Infrastructure Protection To engage Federal, State, [terri- Plan (NIPP). It is also the priority of the NPG to strengthen torial,] local, and tribal entities, their Information sharing and collaboration capabilities; private and nongovernmental part- Interoperable communications capabilities; ners, and the general public to Chemical, biological, radiation, nuclear, and explosive weapons (CBRNE) achieve and sustain risk-based tar- detection, response, and decontamination capabilities; and get levels of capability to prevent, Medical surge and mass prophylaxis (i.e., disease prevention) capabilities. protect against, respond to, and recover from major events in order While strengthening medical surge and mass prophylaxis capabilities may to minimize the impact on lives, appear to be beyond the scope of state transportation agencies, it is important property, and the economy. to note that each of the other NPG priorities are directly applicable and imperative to improving transportation agency emergency preparedness capabilities. The previous discussion of emergency planning noted the importance of develop- ing an EOP that is both workable and that meets all partners' expectations. This is best accom- plished through information sharing and collaboration among a broad range of stakeholders and emergency management experts (i.e., the state transportation agency's emergency planning team). While the planning phase is designed to bring stakeholders together to create a collabo- rative planning team and an effective EOP, the preparedness phase of emergency management works to ensure the EOP can meet its objectives. As to medical surge and mass prophylaxis, it is not unusual for state transportation agencies to be involved in transportation and distribution plans for national stockpiles and personnel to administer them. During the preparedness phase, the EOP guides and directs the development of supporting hazard- and threat-specific plans and procedures and serves to remind the state transportation agency planning team of the ultimate goals and objectives of the agency's emergency response activities. In this manner, the EOP continues to evolve, intrinsically linking planning and pre- paredness together through its implementation. HSPD-8 defines national preparedness as "the existence of plans, procedures, policies, train- ing, and equipment necessary at the Federal, State, [territorial,] and local level to maximize the ability to prevent, respond to, and recover from major events." At the state transportation agency level, preparedness is more simply described as the tasks and activities necessary to build, sus- tain, and improve the agency's operational capability to prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from the hazards and threats that it may face. Based on this description, it is clear that emergency preparedness cannot end with the development and implementation of the state or transportation agency EOP, rather, it must instead include development, implementation, and testing of other support plans and procedures that define the specific tasks to be completed dur- ing emergency response activities. In doing so, the preparedness phase of emergency manage- ment seeks to answer three fundamental questions: 1. How prepared do we need to be? 2. How prepared are we? 3. How do we prioritize efforts to close the gap? Answering these questions requires the state transportation agency to take an all-hazards approach to identifying the hazards and threats it may face and to develop tangible actions that can be taken to respond to these hazards and threats--the NIMS and the NRF approach to emer- gency management. It is also important to note that answering these questions requires the agency to evaluate and manage risks. This inherently involves development and application of