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SECTION 1 Introduction Background September 11, 2001. Northeast Blackout. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Wildfires in the West. Tornadoes in the Midwest. Flooding in New England and the upper Midwest. Threat of pan- demic influenza. Paralyzing snow and ice storms. The nation's emergency preparedness and response framework is being challenged by the more extensive all-hazards definition of emergency. At all levels of government, practices in place to plan for and respond to emergencies have had to evolve rapidly, driven by the chang- ing risk environment, emergency technology, and new policy direction at both state and federal levels. At the state level, perhaps no agency is more affected by these changes than the transportation agency.1 No longer are these agencies primarily focused on construction and maintenance of the infrastructure, they are assuming greater responsibility for large-scale evacuations in response to natural disasters such as hurricanes and wildfires. They are also being asked to establish and assume new roles and systems to address no-notice evacuations and situations requiring limited mobility (e.g., shelter-in-place/quarantine) such as responding to biological outbreaks, epi- demics, pandemics, and the threat of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). In response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the anthrax attacks that followed, a newly formed AASHTO Security Task Force (now the Special Committee on Transportation Security and Emergency Management--SCOTSEM), in cooperation with the FHWA and with funding from NCHRP Project 20-07, Task 151A, produced A Guide to Updating Highway Emergency Response Plans for Terrorist Incidents (the 2002 Guide, AASHTO, 2002). The 2002 Guide clearly responded to the threat of terrorism. Subsequently, the newly created Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which includes the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Transportation Security Administra- tion (TSA), and the U.S. Coast Guard, became the focal point for federal emergency response. One of DHS's first actions was to consolidate the emergency planning/emergency response 1 State transportation agencies, often Departments of Transportation (DOTs), are those agencies responsible for major components of a state's transportation system. Some states have separate agencies responsible for different transportation modes--highways, transit, rail, aviation, ports. Other agencies may support the transportation agency, such as traffic enforcement and regulation of motor carriers, which may have transportation-related security needs. When state transportation agency is used in this Guide, it generally applies to transportation agencies, not just at the state level, but also to territorial, multi-regional, local (county and city), and tribal authorities. Nongovernment organizations and private-sector stakeholders involved in emergency response will also find the guidance useful. 5