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Develop an Emergency Preparedness Program 57 · Has ensured that computer-aided dispatch (CAD) systems generally used by emergency response agencies and either CAD or TMC operations software systems used by transporta- tion agencies are capable of working together and sharing/overlaying data. · Has developed mechanisms to be able to communicate with other responders at the scene, including the use of designated radio channels, intercom, phone systems, or other means. · Has developed communications protocols for distributing information to the public (includ- ing freight haulers and tourists) preceding and following an emergency event. · Has designed ITS subsystems for redundancy and to reduce single points of failure. Step 3--Emergency Evacuation/Shelter-in-Place/Quarantine Plans and Traffic Control and Management Protocols and Procedures FHWA's primer, Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice, states that ". . . the most important activity to ensure successful evacuations is develop- ment of an evacuation plan that complements a jurisdiction's emergency response plans" (FHWA, 2006c). With this in mind, this portion of the preparation process involves the follow- ing four phases. PREPARE Phase 07: Establish Applicable State Transportation Agency Response Management Teams Purpose. Establish traffic management teams to manage and direct traffic on highways, at critical intersections lacking active signalization, and contraflow operations, as needed. Actions. Establish traffic management teams to manage and direct traffic on highways, at critical intersections lacking active signalization, and contraflow operations, as needed. Focus. Deployment of traffic management teams during emergency evacuations/shelter-in- place/quarantine situations to assist in managing and directing traffic on highways, at critical intersections lacking active signalization, and during contraflow operations can improve the effi- ciency of evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine efforts. If the state transportation agency chooses to develop such teams, then it should also develop plans and procedures detailing when and how the teams will be deployed, how to maintain communications with the traffic manage- ment teams, and when and how to withdraw traffic management teams from the affected area to ensure their safety. Supporting Resources. · NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 6: Guide for Emergency Trans- portation Operations, search for title at www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs · Final Report for the Application of Technology to Transportation Operations in Biohazard Situ- ations, http://www.its.dot.gov/eto/docs/transops_biohazard/executive.htm · NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 13: A Guide to Traffic Control of Rural Roads in an Agricultural Emergency, search for title at www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs PREPARE Phase 08: Prepare Traffic Management Performance Measures Purpose. Perform traffic flow analyses to support emergency evacuation/shelter-in-place/ quarantine and response planning. Actions. Perform traffic flow analyses, evaluating speed, vehicle occupancy, traveler behavior, contraflow, etc., and include in evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine route adjustments. Sup- porting actions may include the following steps: · Analyze traffic flow of evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine routes focusing on all freeways and major arterial roadways serving the route. Focus on egress and ingress operations sepa-
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58 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies rately. Avoid left-turn movements across traffic flow. Divert traffic flow from critical locations (e.g., Points of Dispensing sites in support of the strategic National Stockpile) and bottlenecks that could cause congestion. · Develop multiple local flow (feeder) routes connected to the main evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine routes, as necessary to achieve optimum efficiency. · Test contraflow operations, including full set up and breakdown of traffic controls, safety equipment, and materials. · Identify the distances those evacuated/sheltered-in-place/quarantined must travel to reach a point of safety for each of the hazards identified. · Identify user groups potentially affecting egress and ingress operations (e.g., regional through traffic, truckers, other interstate travelers). · Review applicable passive (e.g., traveler information dissemination only) and aggressive (e.g., physical traffic control) operations strategies. · Develop freeway interchange operations tactics to maximize ramp capacity and prevent evac- uation route mainline congestion. · Increase intersection traffic handling capacity by simplifying traffic movements and minimiz- ing the number of traffic signal phases. · Analyze potential bottlenecks, barriers, scheduled work zones, and other potential problems in advance to determine an evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine route. · Plan for shutting down highway work zones, nonessential commercial vehicle traffic restric- tions (including oversized loads), hazardous materials, etc. · Implement processes to suspend toll collections on public and private toll roads. · Adjust or remove ramp metering as necessary. · Adjust traffic signal timing as necessary. Use FHWA's Arterial Management Program19 for arterial management, traffic signal timing, and access management. Use highway contractors to secure highway construction work zones. · Control traffic and respond to traffic incidents through joint efforts among transportation, law enforcement, and emergency medical personnel. · Review/modify/suspend timing of drawbridge openings and lock downs. Focus. Regional evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine events are supported by effective traf- fic signal timing plans and through real-time monitoring of evacuation routes. State transportation agencies should develop procedures for monitoring evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine routes and coordinating traffic signals and timing to facilitate the effective flow of individuals to and from the region--done through the support of the Traffic Management Center. Supporting Resources. · Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice: Routes to Effec- tive Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer/ 00_evac_primer.htm PREPARE Phase 09: Develop Traffic Management Plans and Protocols to be Used During Evacuation/Shelter-in-Place/Quarantine and to Respond to Emergency Events Purpose. Ensure the state transportation agency has plans and procedures in place for managing traffic during emergencies requiring activation of the State EOC (e.g., predesignated traffic control points (TCPs) for intersections along the transportation corridor, alternative 19 Visit http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/arterial_mgmt/.
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Develop an Emergency Preparedness Program 59 emergency response access routes, emergency turnarounds, protocols for communicating and coordinating with construction crews to support traffic control, equipment storage sites for pre- staging anticipated equipment, travel-on-shoulder guidelines, closure and alternate route guide- lines, rapid vehicle and debris removal guidelines, contraflow plans). This phase currently addresses roadway aspects. Additional guidance that addresses all modes of transportation under state control or influence is under development through NCHRP Proj- ect 20-59(32), "A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation." Related work is under development through TCRP Project A-33, "Communication with Vulnerable Popula- tions: A Transportation and Emergency Management Toolkit." Actions. Develop predesignated TCPs for intersections along the transportation corridor. Supporting actions may include the following: · Coordinate the designation of these TCPs with state and local law enforcement. Develop alter- native emergency response access routes. · Identify emergency turnarounds, including median breaks/crossovers, to allow emergency response and highway operations personnel to turn around between interchanges. · Identify emergency access for transit operations, including locations for access to the transit rail lines for emergency response. · Develop protocols for communicating and coordinating with construction crews to support traffic control. · Identify equipment storage sites for pre-staging anticipated equipment. · Establish predetermined staging areas for each segment of the transportation corridor. · Develop travel-on-shoulder guidelines to ensure that highway shoulders are available for emergency use for response vehicles and general traffic, if necessary. · Establish closure and alternate route guidelines to guide implementation of closures and alter- nate routes using predetermined routes. · Establish rapid vehicle and debris removal guidelines to ensure a process for clearing roadways. · Establish landing zone guidelines and predetermined landing sites for MedEvac helicopters and traffic surveillance aircraft. · Develop traffic signal control plans to quickly implement alternative routes and close impacted lanes on the transportation corridor. · Identify traffic control techniques to provide clear guidance for incident traffic control and allow safe and efficient deployment of closures, detours, and alternative routes. · Identify corridors equipped with traffic signal preemption for use by emergency vehicles. Focus. Evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine events begin at the local level on small road- ways and neighborhood streets and progress to the state's major arterials and interstates. As a result, while it may not be possible to finalize the specific evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine routes until the geographic scope and nature of the emergency event is known, emergency plan- ners must remain cognizant of the fact that the design capacity of these thoroughfares may be exceeded during large-scale evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine of the region. Planners should identify primary and alternate evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine routes that have a high probability of use considering their ease of restoration, functional service, and strategic location. Identify these routes in the state's Emergency Evacuation Plan, recognizing that their use may change once the scope and nature of the emergency event is known or as the evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine progresses. The traffic control and management portion of the Emergency Evacuation Plan (and shelter-in-place/quarantine plans) should address how these changes and other real-time adjustments to defined evacuation routes will be made to ensure the evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine continues unimpeded. This includes how the state transportation agency will coordinate changing evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine route needs with local, regional, territorial, and tribal agencies.
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60 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Supporting Resources. · Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer/ 00_evac_primer.htm · I-95 Corridor Coalition, Projects & Reports: Coalition Publications, http://www.i95coalition. org/i95/Library/tabid/84/Default.aspx · Work Zone Safety and Mobility Rule, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/resources/final_rule.htm · Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) Emergency Management Systems, http://www.its.dot.gov/evaluation/docs_ems.htm · NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 9: Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises, search for title at www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs · Simplified Guide to the Incident Command System for Transportation Professionals, http:// www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/ics_guide/index.htm · Using Highways for No-Notice Evacuations: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer_nn/index.htm PREPARE Phase 10: Coordinate with Neighboring Jurisdictions Purpose. Coordinate traffic management plans with neighboring jurisdictions that may be affected by evacuation and response operations. Actions. Coordinate plans with neighboring jurisdictions that may be affected by evacuation/ shelter-in-place/quarantine and response operations. Share plans with higher government levels, as requests for additional resources may be necessary. Coordinate state plans with neighboring states, as evacuees may travel to another state to seek shelter or mutual aid may be requested from another state. States should look into creating interstate compacts that encompass all local juris- dictions.20 Use the capabilities of regional organizations, such as the I-95 Corridor Coalition, to assist in such coordination. Focus. The state transportation agency should also work with its neighboring jurisdictions to develop access management and corridor management programs to improve traffic flow and alleviate congestion issues that may occur during the evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine. Emergency Evacuation Plans (shelter-in-place/quarantine plans), or separate supporting traffic control and management plans and procedures, should describe or be developed as separate sup- porting traffic control and management plans and procedures, including predesignated TCPs along the evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine corridor, alternate access routes for emergency responder access, emergency turnarounds, protocols for communicating and coordinating with construction crews to support traffic control, equipment storage sites for pre-staging anticipated equipment, travel-on-shoulder guidelines, closure and alternate route guidelines, and rapid vehicle and debris removal guidelines. National Incident Management System Compliance Issues. Coordinate and support emer- gency management and incident response objectives through development and use of the inte- grated Multiagency Coordination System (MACS) (i.e., develop/maintain connectivity capability between local Incident Command Posts [ICPs], local 9-1-1 Centers, and EOCs, as well as NRF organizational elements) (FEMA-MACS, 2009). Supporting Resources. · Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice Routes: Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer/ 00_evac_primer.htm 20 This is possible through EMAC.
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Develop an Emergency Preparedness Program 61 · Using Highways for No-Notice Evacuations: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer_nn/index.htm Step Observations The state transportation agency's EOP should support and be coordinated with the state's Emergency Evacuation Plan (or shelter-in-place/quarantine plans). Because the state's highway infrastructure will likely be the primary means of evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine, the state's Emergency Evacuation Plan (and shelter-in-place/quarantine plans) should define the specific details and activities the state will take through its transportation agency to manage and control traffic flow during emergency evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine, response, and recovery efforts. The agency should verify that the traffic control and management portion of the state's Emergency Evacuation Plan (and shelter-in-place/quarantine plans) identifies the placement locations of DMSs, CCTV cameras, barricades, warning lights, portable signs, and HAR, including planned messages. Traffic control and management protocols should also consider potential bottlenecks or prob- lems that could occur along the primary and alternate evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine routes, and the Emergency Evacuation Plan (and shelter-in-place/quarantine plans) should reflect how these problems will be resolved if they occur. The plan should also define when and how contraflow operations will be implemented and any alternate signal timing plans that can be used to control traffic flow. If possible, develop separate traffic management plans for prede- fined incident severity levels and locations. The FHWA's Simplified Guide to the Incident Command System for Transportation Profession- als discusses the usefulness of developing an Operations Manual or unified response manual that focuses on ICS implementation and specifies the concept of operations, agency capabilities, and procedures necessary for initiating and maintaining a coordinated response (FHWA, 2006a). The development of such a manual can greatly benefit emergency preparedness and response capa- bilities, especially if state transportation personnel are unfamiliar with the ICS structure. For state transportation agencies, the operations manual should discuss specific ICS implementation issues, such as the Unified Command structure and command methods, participating agencies, and resources. The manual would also include specific traffic management plans and procedures for predefined incident severity levels and locations, including each of the traffic control and management considerations previously discussed in this section. As with the state transporta- tion agency's EOP, the agency's Operations Manual should be developed through the Emergency Planning Team. Periodically update all plans and procedures according to a set schedule, implemented, and tested in the form of a drill or exercise at least once a year. There should also be an after-action review associated with all drills, exercises, and particularly after actual events to incorporate les- sons learned to all plans and procedures from the event. As long as the National Incident Man- agement System is a somewhat new concept, a standing exercise goal or After-Action Report (AAR) item of consideration should be NIMS compatibility and successful implementation of its principles and terminology. Operational procedures should contain a variety of job aids and orientation materials to ensure that support personnel have the tools they need to complete their assigned tasks. This is also useful when support personnel arrive from other departments and agencies to augment state staffing. Step Checklist To evaluate the state transportation agency's traffic control and management plans and pro- cedures, the agency should consider whether it has