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6 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies (EP/ER) process and begin to publish policies and guidelines to help ER planners at all levels standardize ER doctrines, processes, and resources to ensure a consistent program nationwide. The 2002 Guide was conceived as a quick-response project. AASHTO's intent was to work- shop the 2002 Guide; allow time for state transportation agencies to identify necessary changes through their experience in implementing the 2002 Guide; allow time for federal roles to be clar- ified; and then to publish a new emergency response guide for state transportation agencies that reflects mature regulations, requirements, and research. The product of that effort is NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 16: A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies (the Guide; the 2010 Guide), which was developed under NCHRP Project 20-59(23). Object and Scope of the 2010 Guide A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies was developed for use by state transportation agencies as they plan and develop their organizational functions, roles, and responsibilities for emergency response within the all-hazards context of the National Incident Management System (NIMS). Guide Scope The 2010 Guide reflects the evolving context of threats and hazards, improved state trans- portation agency organization for traffic management, and the nation's emergency management context (DHS, FEMA, etc.). Consistent with this context, the Guide is NIMS-compliant, as it fully embraces the incident command, joint planning, standardization, and performance-based improvements in incident/emergency management (NIMS, 2008). All-hazards oriented, which considers the full range of hazards and threats from minor traf- fic incidents to catastrophic events. It applies to all transportation agencies, from the state to territorial, local, and tribal-level agencies, and even to interregional coalitions. Multimodal, including all modes and sectors that use the highway system, including personal travel, transit, and commercial vehicle transport.2 Oriented to the safe and efficient management of incidents, for the safety of responders and victims alike, for preserving public and private infrastructure and socioeconomic activities, and for rapid restoration to normalcy. The 2010 Guide also explores how transportation fits into the traditional emergency manage- ment community and what transportation offers. The 2010 Guide provides the legal/institutional perspective because it is imperative that a transportation agency understand what it must--or should--do and assess its capability to do it. Through its ER planning evaluation and assessment, the agency can incorporate a stronger, broadly focused operations and management perspective. It is also important to understand that a state transportation agency will always fulfill a sup- port role in the emergency response effort to major incidents. Rather than serving as the lead emergency response agency, the transportation agency will receive direction from the state or some higher government authority. 2 The 2010 Guide does not directly address aviation, marine, heavy rail, or pipeline modes, although these modes and the threats against them can impact transportation infrastructure and operations. These modes should be considered, as appropriate, in the ER planning process (e.g., aviation and marine have a place in emergency evacuation planning).