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Develop an Emergency Preparedness Program 71 Supporting Resources. State NIMS Integration: Integrating the National Incident Management System into State Emer- gency Operations Plans and Standard Operating Procedures, Vol. 1.0, http://www.fema.gov/ pdf/nims/eop-sop_state_online.pdf Step Observations Emergency response begins first with incident detection, at which point the nature and scope of the emergency must be evaluated to determine the degree of response capabilities needed to appropriately respond to the event. For the purpose of this discussion, it is assumed that the State EMA will be the lead agency in making this evaluation for major emergencies (i.e., those beyond routine traffic incidents). Once made, the state will then begin to implement the ICS structure by establishing a Unified Command Center and notifying the response agencies with the appro- priate functional capabilities and responsibilities necessary to respond to, manage, control, and recover from the event. Typically, the larger the emergency event, the larger the ICS structure and the more agencies involved in the response effort. The location of the emergency event will also determine what jurisdiction(s) have authority over the affected area(s). During most large-scale emergency events, the state transportation agency will serve as the lead transportation representative in the ICS structure. The agency should therefore monitor the performance of the transportation network using available surveillance and ITS systems and equipment, field personnel, manual or automated information sharing and communication sys- tems, and regional transportation organizations and partner agencies. The state transportation agency should exert its broader role of the transportation desk to communicate to the Incident Command Team. For example, NCHRP Project 20-59(19) pro- duced NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 10: Transportation's Role in Public Health Disasters; it also produced software to support transportation planning for essen- tial services in order to avoid cascading effects across sectors--and mass care. For more infor- mation, see Appendix G for a description of the Transportation Emergency Response Effects Tracking (TERET) software. Step Checklist To evaluate the state transportation agency's processes for initiating and responding to emer- gencies, the agency should consider whether it Established processes for detecting and verifying emergencies and for monitoring the per- formance of the transportation network using surveillance systems, field personnel, manual or automated information sharing with local emergency management agencies, 9-1-1 Cen- ters, and regional transportation organizations. Understands the NIMS/ICS and NRF structure, and its roles and responsibilities in that structure. Assessed status of transportation infrastructure and received reports from automated systems, field personnel, and law enforcement. Is able to gain and maintain situation awareness during emergencies, including the ability to receive notification of all declared emergencies and to ensure that situation reports contain verified information and explicit details related to the emergency. Can provide accurate information related to the status of the region's transportation infra- structure to the Incident Commander. Step 2--Address Emergency Needs and Requests for Support As emergency response efforts progress, the state transportation agency may be called upon to provide additional information and resources as necessary to support ongoing response oper-

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72 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies ations. Fulfilling unexpected and ongoing requests for support requires the agency to maintain a high degree of readiness and sufficient resources, or the ability to obtain such resources with limited notice. This requires the completion of two phases. RESPOND Phase 04: Coordinate Response to the Emergency Purpose. Activate appropriate plans, procedures, and protocols and mobilize available personnel, equipment, facilities, devices, and information to support emergency response. As appropriate and/or as requested, provide field support for emergency responders at the scene, integrated through the ICS and communicated and coordinated with the TMC. Actions. Activate appropriate plans, procedures, and protocols based on the type of emer- gency. Activate Incident Management Teams in accordance with NIMS. Activate Specialized Response Teams, including search and rescue teams, crime scene investigators, public works teams, hazardous materials response teams, public health specialists, or other personnel, as appropriate. Supporting actions may require the agency to do the following: Mobilize pre-positioned assets and supporting equipment. Manage all emergency incidents and preplanned special events in accordance with ICS orga- nizational structures, doctrine and procedures as defined by NIMS. Coordinate requests for additional support. As appropriate and/or as requested, provide field support for emergency responders at the scene, integrated through the ICS, and communicated and coordinated with the TMC. Activate logistics systems and venues to receive, stage, track, and integrate resources into ongo- ing operations. ICS should continually assess operations and scale and adapt existing plans to meet evolving circumstances. Address emergency responder transportation needs and scene access support and staging requirements. Identify available transportation equipment, facilities, personnel, devices, and information to support emergency response. Assign transportation agency resources to move materials, personnel, and supplies as requested by responders. Track resource status. If appropriate, support hazardous materials containment response and damage assessment by using available capabilities coordinated with on-scene field response through the ICS. Ensure that nonhazardous materials, particularly small vehicle fluid spills, are removed from the transportation facility--initially travel lanes/tracks--as quickly as possible. Attend regular briefings at the incident site regarding the situation, incident action plan, response objectives, and strategy, with full opportunity for transportation contributions and identification of resources and capabilities to support the response effort and action plan. Perform damage assessment responsibilities for affected transportation system elements. Make/recommend decisions regarding closures, contraflow operations, restrictions, and pri- ority repairs. Coordinate assessments and decisions made regarding the operational capabilities of the transportation system with affected parties (emergency responders; local, state, and federal government; etc.). Initiate priority clean-up, repair, and restoration activities, including the use of contractors and emergency procurement authorities. Review and, as necessary, terminate existing work zone activities and/or closures to the extent possible. Obtain incident status briefings and anticipate changing conditions (wind direction, weather, plume direction, etc.).

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Develop an Emergency Preparedness Program 73 Based on all available information, develop detours and diversions (as necessary) to direct traf- fic safely away from the affected area and/or damaged infrastructure. Prioritize and clearly communicate incident requirements so resources can be efficiently matched, typed, and mobilized to support emergency operations. Initiate traffic management operations and control strategies. Provide public information/traveler alerts on the status of the transportation system. Assign personnel to Regional and State EOCs to coordinate with and assist public safety agen- cies and other agencies involved in disaster response and recovery efforts. Support communications between transportation personnel and their families/friends. Focus. Improve emergency response capabilities. National Incident Management System Compliance Issues. To achieve NIMS compliance, Manage all incidents, including planned special events, in accordance with ICS organizational structures, doctrine, and procedures. ICS implementation must include consistent applica- tion of Incident Action Planning (IAP), common communications plans; implementation of area command to oversee (1) multiple incidents that are handled by separate ICS organiza- tions or (2) the management of a very large or evolving incident that has multiple incident management teams engaged; and implementation of Unified Command (UC) in multi- jurisdictional or multi-agency incident management, as appropriate. Coordinate and support emergency management and incident response objectives through the development and use of integrated MACS. Supporting Resources. Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer/ 00_evac_primer.htm I-95 Corridor Coalition, Projects & Reports: Coalition Publications, http://www.i95coali tion.org/i95/Library/tabid/84/Default.aspx Work Zone Safety and Mobility Rule, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/resources/final_ rule.htm Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) Emergency Management Sys- tems, http://www.its.dot.gov/evaluation/docs_ems.htm NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 9: Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises, search for title at www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs Simplified Guide to the Incident Command System for Transportation Professionals, http:// www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/ics_guide/index.htm Using Highways for No-Notice Evacuations: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer_nn/index.htm RESPOND Phase 05: Evaluate Need for Additional Assistance from Neighboring States, Jurisdictions, and/or Federal Government Purpose. Coordinate requests for additional support with appropriate jurisdictions following previously established mutual-aid plans. Actions. Evaluate the need for additional resources and whether to request assistance from other states using interstate mutual-aid and assistance agreements, such as the EMAC. If the inci- dent overwhelms state and mutual-aid resources, then the governor should request federal assis- tance and/or deploy the State Department of Military/National Guard.