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74 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies Focus. Determine whether to enact MOU/As to gain additional assistance as necessary to respond to the emergency event. National Incident Management System Compliance Issues. Institute mechanisms to deploy, track, recover, demobilize, and provide reimbursement for resources used during response and recovery. Supporting Resources. · TR News, MayJune 2007 "All-Hazards Preparedness, Response, and Recovery," search for title at www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs · NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 6: Guide for Emergency Trans- portation Operations, search for title at www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs · NCHRP Web-Only Document 73: Emergency Transportation Operations: Resources Guide for NCHRP Report 525, Volume 6, search for title at www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs Step Observations The preceding discussions of emergency planning and preparedness noted that state trans- portation agencies should identify and develop on-call contracts with potential vendors and/or contractors that may be called upon to support emergency response and recovery efforts beyond the scope or capabilities of the agency. During such occurrences, the agency should also be pre- pared to exercise mutual-aid agreements and the EMAC provisions discussed previously. A benefit of the ICS is that information pertaining to emergency response activities and progress is shared consistently across the response team. This means that state transportation agencies, through active participation in the ICS structure, are better able to predict the changing transportation-related needs of the continuing response effort. With this information, agencies are able to activate the mutual-aid agreements and on-call support services contracts as necessary to ensure response activities continue to operate efficiently and with minimal delay. The agency should therefore be fully capable not only of effectively monitoring and contributing to the response effort, but also of coordinating and adjusting its own response activities as needs change. ICS implementation must include the consistent application of an Incident Action Plan (IAP) and a Common Communications Plan (CCP), as appropriate. As the incident unfolds, on-scene ICS should update incident action plans and revise courses of action based on changing circumstances, typically on a 15-minute review cycle. Step Checklist To evaluate the state transportation agency's processes and capabilities for addressing emer- gency needs and ongoing requests for support, an agency should consider whether it has · Coordinated its response to the emergency, including activation of appropriate plans, proce- dures, and protocols to mobilize available personnel, equipment, facilities, devices, and infor- mation to support emergency response. This includes providing field support (as appropriate and/or as requested) to emergency responders at the scene, integrated through the ICS, and communicated and coordinated with the TMC. · Evaluated the need for additional assistance from neighboring states, jurisdictions, and/or the federal government through established EMAC and/or mutual-aid plans. Step 3--Manage Evacuations, Shelter-in-Place, or Quarantine Once ordered, all parties must support the decision to evacuate, shelter-in-place, or quar- antine an affected area. Perhaps the most significant role a state transportation agency will play during the emergency response effort is that of helping to manage the evacuation/ shelter-in-place/quarantine of the affected region(s). Once the decision is made and the state
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Develop an Emergency Preparedness Program 75 has activated its Emergency Evacuation Plan, the agency must begin implementing its traffic control and management roles and responsibilities as stated in the Plan. This may include working and coordinating with local, state, and regional TMCs and TCCs to manage traffic signal timing, message signs, and other public information systems; deploying response teams, equipment, and other resources as necessary to direct and facilitate traffic flow and remove debris; activating and coordinating contraflow activities along evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine routes; and monitoring progress and providing the Incident Command Team with updates regarding the continued viability of primary routes and the need to begin using alternate routes. Managing an evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine requires the completion of two phases. RESPOND Phase 06: Make and/or Support Decision to Evacuate, Shelter-In-Place, or Quarantine Purpose. Coordinate with appropriate local, regional, and state officials regarding evacua- tion/shelter-in-place/quarantine orders and routes. Actions. Determine the probability of impact (depending on the nature of the event). Esti- mate the effects on the geographic area and types of people and materials to be evacuated, sheltered-in-place, or quarantined. In terms of the decision made, consider the timing of the event and the lead time to initiate the action; weather conditions and their potential effects on evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine. Evaluate the economic impacts of such a decision on the public and private sectors. Supporting actions may include the following: · Determine the condition and availability of evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine routes or controls points. · Determine whether neighboring jurisdictions have made an evacuation/shelter-in-place/ quarantine decision. · Determine the population potentially affected by the action, including jurisdictions that will be hosting those evacuated, sheltered-in-place, or quarantined. · Determine the availability and safety of personnel to support the action. · Determine whether to deploy separate teams to notify residents and ensure their evacuation, or other means to notify people of the shelter-in-place or quarantine decision. · Also, consider the personal needs of those evacuated, sheltered-in-place, or quarantined and the needs for vehicle servicing, particularly fuel, and whether power and other utilities should be terminated for safety. Focus. Implement the unified command structure. Supporting Resources. · Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer/ 00_evac_primer.htm · Using Highways for No-Notice Evacuations: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer_nn/index.htm · TR News, "Evacuation Planning, Human Factors, and Traffic Engineering: Developing Sys- tems for Training and Effective Response," search for title at www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs · Transportation Emergency Response Effects Tracking (TERET) software. See Appendix G of this report for a description. TERET is a tool developed under NCHRP Project 20-59(19), which was published as NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 10: A Guide to Transportation's Role in Public Health Disasters. TERET is available by download and can be accessed at http://www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs; search for A Guide to Emergency Response Plan- ning at State Transportation Agencies. · NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 13: A Guide to Traffic Control of Rural Roads in an Agricultural Emergency, search for title at www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs
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76 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies · ACRP Report 5: Quarantine Facilities for Arriving Air Travelers: Identification of Planning Needs and Costs, search for title at www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs RESPOND Phase 07: Issue and/or Support Evacuation/Shelter-in- Place/Quarantine Order Purpose. Mobilize the state transportation agency activation team to coordinate evacuation, shelter-in-place, or quarantine operations. Actions. Issue evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine orders through established commu- nication systems and protocols. Notify service organization, local, regional, state, and federal stakeholders, including sheltering organizations, as applicable. Focus. Implement the Incident Command System structure. National Incident Management System Compliance Issues. Use access control measures during an incident, as appropriate. Supporting Resources. · Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer/ 00_evac_primer.htm · Using Highways for No-Notice Evacuations: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer_nn/index.htm Step Observations Fulfilling these duties requires close coordination with other response agencies and stakehold- ers through the ICS structure. This is especially true during large-scale events in which the state transportation agency may be called upon to support the evacuation, shelter-in-place, or quar- antine of a neighboring state or region. The agency's involvement in the evacuation/shelter-in- place/quarantine event will also likely evolve as the incident itself evolves. The agency must therefore be capable of not only working within the ICS structure, but also be capable of adapt- ing quickly and efficiently to the changing conditions and demands of the incident. In the case of shelter-in-place or quarantine, the state transportation agency could be called upon to provide supporting assets and to transport responders. Again, consider the safety of emergency response personnel during the evacuation/shelter- in-place/quarantine effort. As a result, the state transportation agency must also realize that at some point it will have to either order the evacuation of its own personnel and response teams from the region, or order that they shelter-in-place or remain in the quarantine area (if shelters and resources are available to do so). While a number of factors must be consid- ered to make this difficult decision, including how the emergency event is evolving (e.g., is it diminishing or growing stronger), maintaining the safety of emergency response personnel must remain a primary objective of the response effort. A key part of the emergency evacuation effort--and an important lesson learned through Hurricane Katrina--is providing transportation to those individuals of the affected area who are unable to evacuate, shelter-in-place, or quarantine themselves. In many cases, this will require that the state transportation agency coordinate and work closely with local, state, and regional public transit and school agencies, hospitals, and private transportation companies to provide the vehicles and equipment necessary to evacuate these individuals from the affected area or to assist in shelter-in-place or quarantine areas. In doing so, be sure to consider the special medical needs that may be presented by these individuals and the medical resources and equipment that may be required at their final destinations.