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Develop an Emergency Preparedness Program 83 Recover from the Emergency In many respects, once the emergency has ended, the most difficult part of the emergency management process--recovering from the event--begins. Assessments must be made of dam- age caused by the emergency event; utilities such as power and water must often be restored; debris and other potential hazards must be removed from the affected area; and security provisions must be implemented to prevent criminal activities such as looting and theft. Additionally, med- ical treatment must be provided to those injured during the event; those who perished during the emergency must be identified and removed from the scene, and arrangements must be made to notify their next of kin; and transportation infrastructure elements must be examined to ensure their continued integrity and viability of use. Each of these activities can be costly, requir- ing the use of specialized personnel and equipment to prevent further losses. Each activity must also be completed before those evacuated/sheltered-in-place/quarantined are permitted to return to their homes and businesses. As with each of the other emergency management phases, it is important to take every precau- tion to ensure the safety of personnel involved in the recovery operations. This is, again, best achieved through the NIMS/ICS structure and the continued coordination with other emergency response agencies and stakeholders. In many cases, additional resources may also be available from neighboring jurisdictions and regions, as well as the state and federal government in the form of the National Guard. The ICS structure provides a simplified means through which these resources can be obtained and managed. The following has been developed to provide state transportation agencies with (1) the tools necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of their own recovery processes against the standards and metrics required by the National Incident Management System and (2) additional detail on how to best implement and work within the Incident Command System structure during recovery operations. Again, the following presentation format encourages state transportation agencies to conduct self-assessments. Step 1--Restore Traffic to Affected Areas During recovery operations, the state transportation agency--along with partner agencies, such as transit systems--will likely be called upon to assess, restore, and manage the essential trans- portation services and infrastructure elements of the affected area, as necessary, to complete the recovery effort. This may require deploying specialized teams to (1) conduct damage assessments of transportation infrastructure, (2) remove debris and hazardous materials from primary and alternate reentry routes, and (3) repair any roadways or other transportation facilities needed to support the recovery effort and the phased return of those evacuated/sheltered-in-place/quaran- tined to their homes. Restoring traffic to affected areas requires completion of four phases. RECOVER Phase 01: Restore Essential Services Purpose. Conduct damage and recovery assessments. Actions. Conduct damage assessments, debris removal, hazardous materials disposal, and repair of roads and other transportation facilities, and restore essential services to the affected area. Supporting Resources. Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer/ 00_evac_primer.htm Using Highways for No-Notice Evacuations: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer_nn/index.htm

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84 A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies RECOVER Phase 02: Reestablish Traffic Management in Affected Area Purpose. Establish routes to move traffic into, out of, and/or around affected areas. Actions. Designate routes to move traffic into, out of, and/or around the affected area. Coor- dinate traffic management with restoration plans for affected communities and resumption of government operations and services through individual, private-sector, nongovernmental, and public assistance programs. Supporting Resources. Best Practices in Emergency Transportation Operations Preparedness and Response, http://www. ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/etopr/best_practices/etop_workshop.htm Transportation Emergency Operations, http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/eto_tim_pse/index.htm National Traffic Incident Management Coalition, http://timcoalition.org/?siteid=41&pageid=590 Traffic Incident Management Committee, http://www.trafficincident.org/ RECOVER Phase 03: Reentry into Evacuated, Shelter-in-Place, or Quarantined Area Purpose. Implement a phased approach to bring evacuated, sheltered-in-place, or quaran- tined residents and others into the affected area. Actions. Define specifically who makes the decision to return or remove shelter-in-place/ quarantine restrictions. Identify what factors will influence the decision. Begin developing, coor- dinating, and executing service and site restoration plans for affected communities and resump- tion of government operations and services through individual, private-sector, nongovernmental, and public assistance programs. Supporting actions may include the following: In short-term recovery, assist other agencies to provide essential public health and safety services; restore interrupted utility and other essential services (as soon as safely possible); reestablish transportation routes; and provide food, shelter, and other essential services to those displaced by the event. Long-term recovery may include complete redevelopment of damaged areas. Prioritize activ- ities to conduct damage assessments, debris removal, hazardous materials disposal, and repair of roads and other transportation facilities. Restore transportation support facilities to enable them to receive evacuees when it is safe to do so, and secure critical assets. Estimate the transportation-related damage to the areas to which those evacuated/sheltered- in-place/quarantined will return. Determine if there is, as a result or consequence of an evacuation, an outbreak of disease or any other health or medical issue that should be mitigated, and the consequent impact on transportation. Determine if hazardous materials spills need to be cleaned up. Determine if utilities co-located on transportation facilities are functioning (i.e., running water, electricity). Ensure evacuation/shelter-in-place/quarantine routes are clear of debris and safe for travel. Determine if public transit systems are operational. Identify any populations who should not be allowed to return because of medical, health, or public safety concerns. Verify that injured or diseased people and animals have been attended to and recovered from the area; or if not, determine how to transport them. Develop a strategy for how to communicate transportation-related reentry instructions to the public. Determine if mutual-aid reentry should be accomplished in phases. Transport those who did not self-evacuate/shelter-in-place/quarantine back to their place of residence or longer-term shelters if homes are uninhabitable.

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Develop an Emergency Preparedness Program 85 Identify personnel, equipment, and resources necessary to support reentry. Inspect the affected area and provide transportation aid to survivors who did not evacuate, shelter-in-place, or quarantine. Ensure reentry plans address those people who were unable to evacuate, shelter-in-place, or quarantine themselves. Ensure a clear strategy exists for how, when, and where to transport those evacuated/sheltered- in-place/quarantined and how they may reach their final destinations. Ensure that communication with evacuees who may be scattered among shelters, families' homes, and other areas outside of the immediate jurisdiction can be accomplished effectively. Coordinate with other authorities as to the start and end times of reentry operations, includ- ing the days of the week, geographic areas covered, picture identification (ID) required to reenter, security checkpoints are in place, available routes and maps, vehicle restrictions, and available services. Determine whether to update ITS subsystems (e.g., DMS, HAR, and 5-1-1) to provide infor- mation to individuals reentering the area. Assist in providing traveler services, such as fuel, food, safe water, relief, and medical care, which should be available along the highway routes as they were during the evacuation. Establish alternative plans for return in case the evacuation lasts for days, weeks, or possibly longer. Ensure that operators and passengers have picture IDs to get back to their points of origin. Coordinate reentry plans with other transportation and public safety officials to adequately staff reentry routes. Coordinate operations to identify missing persons who might not have evacuated, sheltered-in- place, or quarantined and been lost in the event or failed to return after the event, particularly children separated from their families. Supporting Resources. Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer/ 00_evac_primer.htm Using Highways for No-Notice Evacuations: Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/evac_primer_nn/index.htm NCHRP Synthesis 392: Transportation's Role in Emergency Evacuation and Reentry RECOVER Phase 04: Conduct Emergency Repairs Purpose. Develop an approach to infrastructure repair/replacement and decontamination. Actions. Develop the approach to infrastructure repair/replacement and decontamination, determining what can be done quickly and what will require more time. Supporting Resources. Accelerated Bridge Construction Technologies, 2007 Conference, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ bridge/accelerated/index.cfm TMC Pooled Fund Study: Current Projects, http://tmcpfs.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/cfprojects/new_ detail.cfm?id=79&%20new=3 The National Homeland Security Research Center, http://www.epa.gov/nhsrc/ Step Observations Once the state transportation agency has made its assessment of the affected area, it should communicate the status of key transportation infrastructure elements to the Incident Command Team, including the time and resources necessary to repair and restore these elements to a degree that can safely support the return of individuals to the area. The agency, in concert with other