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SUMMARY Guide to the Decision-Making Tool for Evaluating Passenger Self-Tagging ACRP Report 41 was developed as part of ACRP Project 10-07 and is a companion to the Decision-Making Tool for Evaluating Passenger Self-Tagging on the CD-ROM bound into this report. The report and tool complement the work underway by the International Air Trans- portation Association (IATA) and the Airport Council International-North America (ACI-NA) to produce a passenger self-tagging implementation guide. This report and tool will help United States (U.S.) airports and airlines evaluate the progress of self-tagging, as TSA-supported pilot programs are expected to begin in late 2010 to 2011. In preparing this report, every effort was made to present the material in a simple, easy-to-follow style. Readers (and ultimately users) of this report should be able to Achieve a good understanding of the passenger self-tagging process, Gain knowledge as to the various means and methods being tested, Receive a customized objective analysis of the impacts and benefits of passenger self-tagging, Obtain information to help make a business case document for passenger self-tagging much more valuable and quantitative, and Produce concrete results regarding the planning for self-tagging. This report provides detailed analysis of the three process steps surrounding passenger self- tagging. These steps include when passengers (1) enter the airport, (2) proceed to self service check-in, and (3) continue through baggage drop off and baggage acceptance. This report also provides guidance on issues related to off-site check-in, baggage handling, and passenger flow analysis at resultant process points, such as at security checkpoints. This report enables readers to educate themselves on the background of passenger self-service and with the issues and opportunities of passengers self-tagging. Chapter 1 provides a historical look at the evolution of passenger self-tagging, along with a brief analysis of how the passenger self- tagging process relates to common use and exclusive use processes. Chapter 2 provides a detailed summary of the research approach taken by the team to obtain and validate existing passenger self- tagging processes throughout the world. Chapter 3 includes a synthesis of the research findings. Chapter 4 includes a listing of the next steps for readers to consider in evaluating the viabil- ity and implementation of a passenger self-tagging process. A detailed listing and description of all research findings can be found in Appendix A to this report, available as Web-Only Doc- ument 10 at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/164162.aspx. The conclusions or results of this research were the development of the Decision-Making Tool, which helps readers to actively and effectively make self-tagging decisions. Included in Chapter 5 of this Report is a user guide for the Decision-Making Tool. The companion to this report is the CD-ROM bound within containing the spreadsheet tools that make up the Decision-Making Tool. 1

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2 Guide to the Decision-Making Tool for Evaluating Passenger Self-Tagging The Decision-Making Tool comprises two specific spreadsheet components: the Assessment Tool and the Simulation Tool. The Assessment Tool provides qualitative information required to understand the scope of the potential self-tagging initiative. It also allows users to input data that describe an airport's unique characteristics, business drivers, and operating environment and produces an Assess- ment Report that details the appropriate strategies, prerequisites to implementation, and pros and cons of self-tagging. The Simulation Tool provides users with quantitative information required to understand the impact of the potential self-tagging initiative on passenger processing. It allows users to input data that describe the specific passenger processing environment to be simulated, including processor throughput times, resource availability, flight information, passenger demographics, and physical space allocation. Also included on the CD-ROM is an audio/visual user guide tutorial for the Decision-Making Tool. Intended Audience This report and Decision-Making Tool are designed to help the airport community assess the impact and benefits of self-tagging. It addresses many different subjects and specialties, such as planning, finance, operations, and airport systems. It is intended to be shared across different departments, enabling the various responsible parties to contribute. The subjects are organized and presented to facilitate a team approach. This report and Decision-Making Tool provide a baseline/foundation for readers, who are expected to include, but are not limited to the following: Airport directors; Airport department leaders and operators; Airline department leaders and operators; Airport and airline planners; Aviation industry associations; Consultants and other specialists in the baggage handling and sortation areas and related fields; Regulatory Agencies responsible for setting policy, defining standards, and considering the security-related issues involved with passenger self-tagging; and Other aviation professionals that may be affected by the change in passenger flow resulting from passenger self-tagging, such as ground handlers and concessionaires. Evolution of Passenger Involvement in the Self-Service Check-in Process The evolutionary development of self-service provides an appropriate background for this report. Figure 1 presents a timeline of events that have led to the industry's current expansion of self-service trends, including, most recently, passenger self-tagging.

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Summary 3 Evolution of Self-Service Manual check-in process by agent - queue lines and no self-service The agent sold tickets, checked documents, weighed bags, and printed boarding pass 1984: Common Use Terminal IATA CUTE: The first widely used and Equipment (CUTE) is introduced. A accepted software system common use interface, allowing any provided a more efficient use of the airline agent connection to their airline airport facility, which ultimately host departure and boarding system. improved the passenger experience. For the passenger, this was a transparent system. Passengers typically avoided early use Airlines introduce self-service of kiosks. Airlines began `training' check-in kiosks. Passengers could their passengers. now check-in and print boarding passes away from the counters. 1999 Alaska Airlines introduces limited use of web check-in Between 2000-2007: Demand in Las Vegas McCarran, JFK T4, Toronto, common use increased as a way of Vancouver - introduce international and deferring the high costs of domestic common use and self service construction. This resulted in airport capacity and capacity planning as high priority issues. Web Check-In: In parallel with the introduction of kiosk check-in, airlines introduced an internet check-in process 2003: IATA CUSS - Common Use (Web Check-in). Self-Service kiosks are introduced. 2004 Only 20% of members airlines 2004: IATA begins StB - Simplifying issued etickets the Business through better use of technologies, to promote efficiences Bar-coded Boarding Passes (BCBPs): and decrease costs. They allowed customers to print their own boarding passes at home. E-Tickets; bar-coded boarding passes, CUSS 2008 100% of all member airlines capable of issuing etickets 2009: Passenger Facilitation Recommended Practices (IATA) Smartphone enabled Boarding Passes: Bags Ready to Go (BRTG) - passenger Since 2008, self-service innovations self-tagging continue, including: Document Scanning Mobile phone check-in Self Boarding - using BCBP RFID on bag tags and embedded in Bag Recovery - self reporting of luggage missing baggage Remote check-in Biometrics for passenger ID 2010: IATA is developing the BRTG 2010 IATA mandate: All member Implementation Guide airlines to use 100% BCBP Researchers are developing Passenger Self-Service trends continue with Self-Tagging Decision-Making Tool passenger adoption growing. Note: RFID = radio frequency identification. Figure 1. Evolution of self-service.