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CHAPTER 2 Research Approach Introduction Passenger processing continues to shift toward the increased use of self-service. One area in particular that has gained global interest is passenger self-tagging. In fact, airports and airlines in Canada, Europe, New Zealand, and other parts of the world have already conducted pilot tests and actual installations. Results from these early installations have demonstrated that self- tagging provides a multitude of benefits to passengers, airlines, and airport operators. Even so, self-tagging has proven to be a complex process, as it affects multiple systems and processes in airports, including Airline check-in; Watchlists and advance passenger data; Self-service kiosks; Baggage drop-off, sortation, reconciliation, and screening; Contractual and commercial issues; and Passenger security screening/processing. Despite the complexity, airlines and airports have considerable interest in developing passen- ger self-tagging, and there are several projects presently under way outside of the U.S. In the U.S., there is a developing interest in self-tagging, including voiced support from the TSA. Respond- ing to this growing trend, solution providers are developing various technologies to meet the needs of the processes being tested and installed. Results from these efforts are providing valu- able feedback regarding the benefits of self-tagging, as demonstrated in Figure 3. While recent airport case studies convey positive results, these installations have presented hurdles that must be overcome. In the U.S., these challenges include U.S. regulatory policies require that airline employees or authorized airline representatives place baggage destination tags on checked baggage. These tags must be placed on bags at the point of acceptance. The TSA has voiced concerns related to the implementation and security impact self-tagging may impose. There are complexities regarding the application of the bag tag: many passengers complain of the difficulty with applying the bag tag properly and in at least one instance, complaints were frequent enough for the airline to discontinue their effort with self-tagging. Even with these issues, industry leading associations, such as the IATA and the ACI-NA have recognized the tremendous opportunities that self-tagging provides, and have sanctioned work- ing groups to investigate the business reasons for benefits and risks associated with passenger self-tagging. These working groups are helping to direct the progress of passenger self-tagging in a positive direction. Recent effort by both working groups has resulted in the completion of the 10