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6 Guide to the Decision-Making Tool for Evaluating Passenger Self-Tagging Electronic tickets: This first StB initiative moved the industry from paper-based tickets to elec- tronic tickets (e-tickets). With e-ticketing, a passenger only needs a ticket number and does not need a document issued by the airline or a travel agent to commence travel. E-ticketing began in 1994 with United Airlines. In 2004, when StB began, only 20% of all issued tickets were electronic. All airlines met the initiative and were capable of issuing e-tickets by 2008 (IATA, 2008). Bar-coded boarding passes: This second StB initiative mandated that bar-coded boarding passes (BCBP) replace magnetic stripe boarding passes and allowed customers to print their own boarding passes at home (IATA, 2008). Checking-in and printing boarding passes at home allowed a customer with no hold baggage to avoid the queues at check-in entirely by allowing the customer to proceed directly to the gate on arrival. All IATA members are mandated to use 100% BCBP by the end of 2010 (IATA 2009). Globally, airlines are continuing to encourage their passengers to perform their own check- in, both through self-service at the airport and web check-in. Agent check-in will likely remain for those passengers who need assistance, but it is possible that they will have to pay extra for the service. For example, a growing number of airlines charge passengers if they do not use web check-in. Current State of the Industry Going into 2010, IATA StB [or Passenger Experience Management Group (PEMG) as the pro- gram is now called] is working on other initiatives. One of their initiatives, the Fast Travel Initia- tive, encourages more self-service options, both in response to passenger requests and for poten- tial savings to the industry. The Fast Travel Initiative expands self-service options at airports, as shown in Figure 2. These have not yet been widely implemented, but the initial goals for 2009 have been met. Other innovations are being developed and implemented that further facilitate passenger check-in, including Issuance of permanent radio frequency identification (RFID) bag tags by airlines, Permanent RFID tags embedded in luggage, Remote check-in at hotels and other off-airport venues, Use of biometrics to identify passengers, and Boarding passes on mobile phones. Figure 2. IATA Fast Travel initiative.