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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 41 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Guide to the Decision-Making Tool for Evaluating Passenger Self-Tagging

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (re- Governments, Arlington tired) VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James Crites Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, DallasFort Worth International Airport Norfolk, VA Richard de Neufville William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kevin C. Dolliole Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Unison Consulting Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, John K. Duval Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Austin Commercial, LP Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Kitty Freidheim Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Freidheim Consulting Steve Grossman Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Jacksonville Aviation Authority Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Federal Aviation Administration Gina Marie Lindsey Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Los Angeles World Airports Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Carolyn Motz Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Hagerstown Regional Airport Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Richard Tucker Authority, Atlanta, GA Huntsville International Airport David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Paula P. Hochstetler Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Airport Consultants Council Sabrina Johnson Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI U.S. Environmental Protection Agency C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Laura McKee Air Transport Association of America Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Henry Ogrodzinski J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT National Association of State Aviation Officials Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Melissa Sabatine George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York American Association of Airport Executives Robert E. Skinner, Jr. University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the SECRETARY Interior, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2010. *Membership as of October 2010.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 41 Guide to the Decision-Making Tool for Evaluating Passenger Self-Tagging Francis Barich Justin Phy Rick Belliotti BARICH, INC. Chandler, AZ Ron Hiscox AIRPORT PROCESS DESIGN, LTD. Montral, Canada Rose Agnew AVIATION INNOVATION, INC. St. Louis, MO Subscriber Categories Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 41 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 10-07 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-15528-1 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2010941672 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. they are considered essential to the object of the report. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 41 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Scott E. Hitchcock, Editor ACRP PROJECT 10-07 PANEL Field of Operations Andrew Kirchhoff, Corgan Associates, Inc., Dallas, TX (Chair) Jerry L. Allen, Palm Beach County (FL) Department of Airports, West Palm Beach, FL Anthony T. Cerino, BPS, LLC, Bedminster, PA Ron Crain, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO James J. Gaydos, American Airlines, Inc., Fort Worth, TX Michael La Pier, Sacramento County (CA) Airport System, Sacramento, CA Duane M. I. Siguenza, Continental Airlines, Inc., Houston, TX Rebecca Henry, FAA Liaison Matthew J. Griffin, Airports Council International - North America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 41: Guide to the Decision-Making Tool for Evaluating Passenger Self-Tagging provides the information and tools, included on accompanying CD-ROM, necessary for an airport or airline to determine the appropriateness of pursuing passenger self-tagging should it be allowed in the United States in the future. The tools, in an Excel Spreadsheet format, allow for the input of airport-specific information, such as facility size and passen- ger flows, while also providing industry averages to assist those airports and airlines that haven't yet collected their individual information. The decision-making tools provide both qualitative and quantitative information that can then be used to assess if passenger self- tagging meets organizational needs or fits into their strategic plan. While passenger self-tagging is not yet in place in the United States, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has indicated openness to the concept and has allowed it for selected flights from Montral into the United States. In fact, the TSA recently approved the start of pilot programs for passenger self-tagging in the United States. The selected airports and airlines have begun the planning phases, and are expected to begin the actual pilots this year or next. These decision-making tools will assist airports and airlines in considering par- ticipation in the self-tagging. Passenger self-tagging is the next step in the evolution of self-service passenger process- ing that has included self-service kiosks, web-based check-in, and "mobile" boarding passes. Both airports and airlines seek ways in which to use their resources in the most efficient manner possible, including terminal capacity. Passenger self-tagging is an evolution of self- service processing, which can allow for better utilization of terminal space and resources for airlines. There are several perceived and real benefits that can be derived from passenger self- tagging. An increase in customer satisfaction can be one area as self-tagging can decrease the processing time. Under ACRP Project 10-07, Barich, Inc. was retained to develop a deci- sion-making tool that can be used by both airports and airlines. The research team reviewed the current state of knowledge and practice of passenger self-tagging in both foreign and domestic airports. They conducted interviews with both airlines and airports and identified the variables that should be considered in a benefit-cost analysis. The outcomes of the research are the two decision-making tools that can be used by airports and airlines to assess self-tagging and a checklist of next steps to move toward implementation.

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AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research discussed in this report was performed under ACRP Project 10-07, "Decision-Making Tool for Evaluating Passenger Self-Tagging," by a research team of recognized experts in airport passen- ger processing and technology solutions. Barich, Inc., was the primary research consultant. Francis Barich, president of Barich, Inc., was the principal investigator and Justin Phy, vice president at Barich, Inc., was the project administrator. The other authors were Rick Belliotti, vice president at Barich, Inc.; Ron Hiscox, principal at Airport Process Design, Ltd.; Rose Agnew, principal at Aviation Innovation, Inc.; and Pam Bell, project researcher at Barich, Inc. Providing technical writing and final graphics of the final report were Marc Gartenfeld and David Van Akkeren. Finally, special acknowledgment is given to Larry Kertz of SITA Application Services and Herve Muller, vice president and general manager of IER, Inc., who pro- vided their time and services during the research phases of the project. The research team would like to express its gratitude to the members of the project panel for their insightful comments and input throughout this research project. The research team would also like to thank the staff at the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport and the Des Moines International Airport for their participation in the verification of the tools presented in this report. In addition, the following air- lines, airports, associations, and agencies provided key contributions through case studies and interviews, for which the research team is very grateful: Airports: London Heathrow Airport; Montral Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport; Toronto Pearson International Airport; Vancouver International Airport; Dublin Airport; Stockholm-Arlanda Airport; Amsterdam Airport Schiphol; Geneva International Airport; Auckland Airport; Wellington International Airport; and Christchurch Airport. Airlines: Air Canada; WestJet; American Airlines; Lufthansa; Air France; KLM; Aer Lingus; SAS; and Air New Zealand. Regulatory Agencies: Transportation Security Administration (TSA); Civil Aviation Authority (CAA); Department for Transport (DfT); and Transport Canada (TC). Industry Associations: American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE); Airport Consultants Council (ACC); Airports Council International (ACI); Air Transport Association (ATA); and Inter- national Air Transport Association (IATA).

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Background 4 Historical Overview 6 Current State of the Industry 7 Passenger Self-Tagging Implementations--Common Use or Exclusive Use 10 Chapter 2 Research Approach 10 Introduction 11 Approach for Assessing and Verifying the Passenger Self-Tagging Process 13 Chapter 3 Findings 13 Summary of Case Study Findings 16 On-Site Verification Findings 18 Chapter 4 Recommended Next Steps for Implementation 23 Chapter 5 The Self-Tagging Decision-Making Tool User Guide 23 Overview 24 Assessment Tool--User Guide 31 Simulation Tool--User Guide 41 References 43 Acronyms and Initialisms 45 Appendix A Research Documentation 46 Appendix B Simulation Tool--Industry-Based Data Values 48 Appendix C Assessment Tool Content Information Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.