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TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 143 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Resource Guide for Commingling ADA and Non-ADA Paratransit Riders

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS Ann August Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington MEMBERS VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore John Bartosiewicz McDonald Transit Associates EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Michael Blaylock Jacksonville Transportation Authority MEMBERS Linda J. Bohlinger HNTB Corp. J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Raul Bravo Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Raul V. Bravo & Associates Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Gregory Cook Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Veolia Transportation Terry Garcia Crews Norfolk, VA StarTran William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Angela Iannuzziello Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh ENTRA Consultants Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, John Inglish Utah Transit Authority Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Sherry Little Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Spartan Solutions, LLC Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Jonathan H. McDonald Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC HNTB Corporation Gary W. McNeil Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley GO Transit Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael P. Melaniphy Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Motor Coach Industries Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Bradford Miller Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Des Moines Area Regional Transit Authority Frank Otero Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA PACO Technologies Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Keith Parker Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit VIA Metropolitan Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Peter Rogoff FTA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Jeffrey Rosenberg Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Amalgamated Transit Union Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Richard Sarles Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Michael Scanlon Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI San Mateo County Transit District C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Marilyn Shazor Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority EX OFFICIO MEMBERS James Stem United Transportation Union Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Gary Thomas J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Dallas Area Rapid Transit Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Frank Tobey First Transit George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Matthew O. Tucker University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC North County Transit District Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Pam Ward LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Ottumwa Transit Authority Alice Wiggins-Tolbert Interior, Washington, DC Parsons Brinckerhoff Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Officials, Washington, DC William W. Millar APTA David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT TRB William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC John C. Horsley Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, AASHTO Victor Mendez Washington, DC FHWA Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Louis Sanders APTA U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Christopher W. Jenks TRB Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2010. *Membership as of October 2010.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 143 Resource Guide for Commingling ADA and Non-ADA Paratransit Riders Rosemary B. Gerty TRANSYSTEMS CORP. Chicago, IL Thomas F. Procopio Caroline R. Ferris TRANSYSTEMS CORP. Boston, MA AND Elizabeth (Buffy) Ellis Sue Knapp THE KFH GROUP Bethesda, MD Subscriber Categories Public Transportation Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 143 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project B-34 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4872 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-15522-9 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve Library of Congress Control Number 2010940343 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions COPYRIGHT INFORMATION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report published or copyrighted material used herein. 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes from CRP. research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, NOTICE facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research administrative practices. Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- Governing Board of the National Research Council. posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but they are considered essential to the object of the report. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 143 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Dianne Schwager, Senior Program Officer Rachel Kirkland, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor TCRP PROJECT B-34 PANEL Field of Service Configuration Rob Andresen, First Transit, Inc., Denver, CO (Chair) Michael Artson, FASTRAN, Fairfax, VA Jon A. Carnegie, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ Kenneth R. Fischer, McDonald Transit Associates, Inc., South Daytona, FL Robert C. Johnson, Waukesha Metro Transit, Waukesha, WI Sarah B. Lenz, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul, MN Park Woodworth, King County (WA) Metro Transit, Banbridge Island, WA Susan Clark, FTA Liaison Bonnie Graves, FTA Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed by TranSystems Corp. (contractor) and KFH Group (sub- contractor) under TCRP Project B-34, "Guidebook for Commingling ADA-Eligible and Other Passen- gers on ADA-Complementary Paratransit Services." Rosemary B. Gerty of TranSystems Corp. (Chicago) served as the principal investigator, along with Elizabeth (Buffy) Ellis, AICP, of KFH Group (Bethesda, Maryland). They were assisted by Thomas F. Pro- copio, CCTM, and Caroline R. Ferris of TranSystems Corp. (Boston), along with Sue Knapp of KFH Group. Ms. Gerty is currently the Division Manager, Operations Analysis/Research at the Regional Trans- portation Authority (RTA) in Chicago. This work was guided by the TCRP Project B-34 panel. The research team is grateful for the panel's insights and support.

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FOREWORD By Dianne Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 143: Resource Guide for Commingling ADA and Non-ADA Paratransit Riders will be of interest to public transit agencies wishing to explore whether and how to com- mingle ADA paratransit and non-ADA paratransit riders. The core features of the Resource Guide are two decision-making processes: (1) planning and (2) operations. The Resource Guide presents important lessons from transit agencies that have made decisions both to commingle and not to commingle their ADA paratransit and non-ADA paratransit riders. "Commingling" ADA and non-ADA riders is a newly coined term for a practice that has been operating in many communities since transit agencies began operating paratransit ser- vices required by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). For this project, "com- mingling" is defined as "routinely transporting ADA eligible paratransit riders with `other' non-ADA paratransit riders on the same vehicles at the same time." The intent of this Resource Guide is to suggest a roadmap for navigating through the process of planning for commingled services that will feed into the operations of that ser- vice, including development of operating policies and procedures. The decision process regarding the planning for commingling ADA and non-ADA rid- ers presented in the Resource Guide is organized into the following four major components: Define purpose and objectives for commingling riders Identify available capacity and funding Evaluate service compatibility Consider primary service parameters The operations decision process, which focuses on developing policies, procedures, prac- tices, and performance-monitoring strategies to ensure successful commingling of riders, also includes four major components: Establish passenger eligibility requirements Develop operating and cost allocation policies and procedures Identify reporting requirements and assess technology needs Develop marketing, education, and monitoring programs Readers of the electronic version of the report (available online at www.trb.org by search- ing for "TCRP Report 143") will find that the components of the two decision-making flow charts--planning and operations--are color coded, which facilitates their readability and use.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 7 Background 7 Overview 9 ADA Complementary Paratransit Regulatory Requirements 10 Models for Commingling ADA and Non-ADA Paratransit Riders 11 Resource Guide Approach 12 Section 1 Planning Decision Process 14 A. Define Purpose and Objectives for Commingling 17 B. Identify Available Capacity and Funding 26 C. Evaluate Service Compatibility 27 D. Consider Primary Service Parameters 30 Section 2 Operations Decision Process 32 A. Establish Passenger Eligibility Requirements 34 B. Develop Operating and Cost Allocation Policies and Procedures 41 C. Identify Reporting Requirements and Assess Technology Needs 44 D. Develop Marketing, Education, and Monitoring Programs 48 Section 3 Lessons Learned 51 References 52 Abbreviations and Acronyms 54 Appendix A Transit Agency Survey Highlights 68 Appendix B Case Study Summaries 89 Appendix C Additional Resources Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.