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4 Strategies to Attract and Retain a Capable Transportation Workforce improve the industry's "rigid" image and be used as a recruitment tool. In any case, new employee- development techniques may help increase retention as job functions and procedures continue to evolve. In this guidebook, recruitment and retention challenges and solutions related to new technologies are discussed to assist managers in evolving their workforce planning efforts as technology evolves. Demand on the Transportation Industry. The demand on transportation agencies has been increasing over the past few decades, which significantly affects the need for successful recruitment and retention practices such as those described in this guidebook. For example, vehicle miles traveled (VMT) has grown by over 80% in the past 20 years. While transportation agencies have worked hard to keep up with this increase, the capacity of the current highway system is still not adequate to address this growth (AASHTO, 2002). In addition, this growth is expected to occur at an average of 2.2% annually, which would equate to more than 3.35 trillion VMT by 2010. In fact, despite a slowing in the annual rate of growth in the general population, Census-based reports have suggested that the population may increase by over 20% by 2020 (Skinner, 2000). Movement along the coastal ports, as a result of freight transportation, has significantly increased as well, by approximately 14% from 1999 to 2000. The overall use of the transportation system has also increased by over 20% in the last few years. There is increased freight traffic in residential neighborhoods due to the influx of online shopping and home delivery of packages (Mineta, 2003). A recent study published by TRB also suggests that more Americans are working outside of their county of residence and that this trend is predicted to continue (KFH Group, Inc., 2008). Thus, congestion is only expected to grow and the demands on state DOTs and other transportation agencies will continue to intensify. Adding further complexity, transportation agencies differ from state to state in size, structure, demographics, and turnover rates; thus practices such as recruitment and retention take on a different form from state to state. 1.2 Overview of Project Methodology Given the workforce challenges described above, the researchers were contracted by NCHRP to develop a guidebook which describes the challenges facing transportation agencies as well as effective strategies for attracting and retaining a capable transportation workforce. To execute the project, three core tasks were conducted. An overview of the method for each task is provided in this section. Task 1: Conduct a Literature Review. The goal of the literature review was to develop a deeper and broader understanding of the issues and proven solutions used to recruit and retain capable transportation workers. The literature review was structured to identify and assemble information from published and unpublished research, technical reports, conference presentations, and case studies. The review included a comprehensive analysis of over 170 sources, which included numerous workforce articles from the transportation literature as well as a review of materials from related industries. Task 2: Conduct Benchmarking Study. The objective of Task 2 was to identify workforce challenges facing transportation and non-transportation agencies, additional best-practice workforce recruitment and retention techniques, and practical tools that may be applied by public transportation agencies. This involved assessing results from previous benchmarking studies and conducting focus groups with over 30 professionals who make HR decisions inside and outside of the transportation industry. Task 3: Conduct Case Study Analysis. In Task 3, results from the first two study tasks were analyzed and 25 programs were identified. These programs provide valuable examples and guidance to human resource professionals and hiring managers in the transportation industry. To fully understand the intricacies of implementing and managing the practices, in-depth case studies were conducted on each of the 26 practices.