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Chapter 2: Using the Guidebook This chapter provides an overview of the guidebook's organizing structures and describes how the guidebook can be most effectively used by transportation professionals. To accomplish this, a summary of the following topics is provided: Recruitment and Retention Topic Areas Used to Organize the Guidebook Overview of Transportation Workforce Pipeline Transportation Workforce Challenges Recruitment and Retention Industry Strategies Transportation Workforce Practices Volume II: Supplemental Materials The purpose of providing these summaries in a separate chapter is to clearly explain how the guidebook was designed, how the separate chapters of the guidebook relate to each other, and to help ensure that users can maximize the complex and multidimensional nature of the information and resources provided. 2.1 Recruitment and Retention Topic Areas Used to Organize the Guidebook In order to organize our searches and findings within our literature review, benchmarking study, and case study analysis, experts on the research team met to establish definitions for the concepts under study. First, they focused on specific content areas within the two major areas of interest: recruitment practices and retention practices. Within these overarching areas, the researchers identified 15 specific topic areas that present the greatest amount of challenge to the transportation industry. Exhibit 2-1 defines the final set of 15 recruitment and retention topic areas--5 recruitment and 10 retention categories. Exhibit 2-1 Recruitment and Retention Topic Areas Used to Organize Guidebook Chapters Recruitment Topic Areas Retention Topic Areas Developing future applicant skills Reducing voluntary turnover Increasing the number of applicants Anticipating and managing performance issues Screening applicants Developing internal staff skills Promoting existing staff Improving culture/climate Branding the organization/industry Leadership development Job classification and design Succession planning Developing knowledge management systems Restructuring benefits and compensation Work-life balance Although each of the recruitment and retention topic areas has an important and specific focus, all categories are inter-related. Thus, an organization which struggles in one area is likely to struggle in other areas. Similarly, a strategy used to improve one specific area is likely to indirectly improve multiple areas. For example, a practice that is designed to help brand the transportation industry as an attractive career choice will likely also increase the number of applicants and help to reduce voluntary turnover. The 15 recruitment and retention categories were used to organize data collection during all project tasks and are used as the major organization mechanism for this guidebook. A full guidebook chapter is dedicated to each topic area. 6