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Job Classification and Design 97 Exhibit 13-2 (Continued) Industry Strategies: Job Classification and Design Strategy Strategy Description even after training, they are offered a technical career path, where they advance in responsibility, decision making, and compensation but do not manage employees. These technical employees help to design tasks but employee managers lead the implementation. Without supervision responsibilities, technical leaders are expected to take on more responsibilities in the report writing or compliance arena. Emphasize Job Job enrichment refers to redesigning jobs to involve greater variety, Enrichment responsibility, meaningfulness, autonomy, and feedback. These job aspects motivate employees by giving them the opportunity to use the range of their abilities (Hackman and Oldham, 1976). Research has shown that job enrichment reduces turnover (McEvoy and Cascio, 1985). Create Advancement Organizations have found a method of motivating their employees and creating within Positions potential for advancement through skill-based compensation. They are taking each job in the organization where the concept is appropriate and breaking the job down by capacities and skill levels (e.g. "beginner" to "advanced"). The number of levels varies between organizations (PennDOT's Transportation University and capacity-based approach set up 10) but each level is connected to a set of skills and corresponding tasks that represent competency in the skill set. Employees enter at the lowest level and are required to demonstrate their competency in each required skill set to at least two supervisors before being promoted to the next level. The promotion involves a small pay increase, which tends to be the most motivating factor in these programs. This concept creates opportunity for advancement within a single position. This can be an effective solution if opportunities for advancement are rarely available. 13.3 Workforce Practices. Four workforce practices that were designed to assist in making the process of "Job Classification and Design" within transportation agencies efficient and effective were reviewed, and we identified two workforce practices that were the most noteworthy within this context: Minnesota DOT Transportation Specialist Series (TSS) Pennsylvania DOT Position Analysis Workbooks (PAWS) For these two practices, we conducted a case study. Summaries of the two case studies are presented below. The full case studies can be found on the TRB website at http://trb.org/Main/Blurbs/164747.aspx as part of Volume II: Supplemental Materials. The full case study descriptions detail each practice's background, implementation, maintenance, evaluation, and transferability.

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98 Strategies to Attract and Retain a Capable Transportation Workforce Minnesota DOT Transportation Specialist Series (TSS). Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) employs 5,033 people in a variety of employment conditions (i.e., temporary, unlimited, Minnesota DOT Transportation Specialist full-time, part-time). In 1999, the Minnesota Series (TSS) Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) Job Type: Maintenance implemented the Transportation Specialist Series (TSS) after a decision to combine three series that ROI: Short-term composed 45% of the agency's workforce. These Generation: All classifications were the Highway Technician Series, Key Program Highlights: Highway Maintenance Worker Series, and Bridge o Combination of Highway Worker. The intent of the combined classifications Technician Series, Highway was to increase agency efficiency and responsiveness, Maintenance Worker Series, and to assist the department in dealing with peaks and Bridge Worker valleys in work, and to simplify the deployment of resources when needed (the right skills, in the right o Focus on workforce planning and place, at the right time). Employees in those professional development to target classifications were converted to the new classification current and future skill needs with the intent to focus on workforce planning and o Helps agency remain competitive, professional development to target current and future develop a more flexible workforce, skill needs. The TSS program aimed to: and meet customer expectations Create an environment in which flexible, multi-skilled workers are deployed to the fullest capacity Provide increased flexibility in employee assignment Improve opportunities for employees to make decisions regarding their daily work activities Increase training and skill development opportunities for line employees Create a link between employees' skill development and mastery and their wage progression The program has enabled Mn/DOT to pull back from movement toward two temporary seasonal workforces, summer and winter, easing recruitment and retention issues. It has also improved employees' abilities to make decisions about their daily work activities and their opportunities to progress through the series, where promotion opportunities historically have been limited. The agency has also been able to better handle staffing issues due to increases in retirements and budget constraints related to limited financial resources and state agency directives implementing hiring restrictions. In working with the union to develop the program, Mn/DOT was also able to negotiate away pay differentials for intermittent supervisors and equipment operators in exchange for fewer restrictions on seniority-based labor contract work rules related to job assignments, equipment operation, and Mn/DOT's overall ability to assign work on both a temporary and permanent basis. One initial goal of the program that has not been achieved is the implementation of skill-based pay. Communication about the TSS program was a key element in its implementation department wide. For example, one district developed a TSS 101 training/communication program that outlined the basics of the program. The TSS 101 training program with talking points was rolled out in all districts. The transition was resource intensive, employing support from 15 HR professionals and approximately seven full-time employees in addition to countless management hours required to facilitate the program's success. Another important aspect of the implementation process was the TSS labor management committee as a cooperative effort between Mn/DOT and the union to address TSS implementation issues of mutual concern. Implementing TSS has saved Mn/DOT money in the long run, specifically by allowing the agency to achieve better employee utilization through shifting employees to where there are current workforce

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Job Classification and Design 99 needs. Furthermore, TSS has helped the agency achieve better equipment utilization by negotiating language in employment contracts that eliminates differential pay based on operating mechanical equipment. Implementing the TSS concept is one of a number of business strategies to allow Mn/DOT to remain competitive, develop a more flexible workforce, and meet customer expectations.

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100 Strategies to Attract and Retain a Capable Transportation Workforce Pennsylvania DOT Position Analysis Workbooks (PAWS). The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) has approximately 12,000 employees, not including consultants or contractors, of Pennsylvania DOT Position Analysis which roughly 10,500 are engaged in maintenance, Workbooks (PAWS) restoration, and expansion of the highway system. Job Type: All The agency is divided into six main divisions, known ROI: Short- to Mid-term as deputates, which include highway administration, Generation: All safety administration, planning, aviation and rail freight, local and area transportation, and Key Program Highlights: administration. o Aimed at addressing recruitment and retention efforts and supporting career PennDOT has implemented a program called Position pathing and succession planning Analysis Workbooks (PAWs) to address recruitment o Describes the roles, responsibilities, and retention efforts and support career pathing and and tasks that are performed in a succession planning. A PAW describes the roles, given position, while also linking the responsibilities, and tasks that are performed in a competencies and training necessary given position in PennDOT and the competencies and for an individual to be successful in training necessary for an individual to be successful in the position the position. To develop a PAW for a position, o Provides proper training and career PennDOT convenes a focus group consisting of direction to employees and helps employees currently serving in the position or those improve organizational efficiency and supervising employees in the position. The focus effectiveness groups are moderated by someone who serves as a Subject Matter Expert (SME) and helps the group to devise a strategy or a series of steps for PennDOT employees to succeed in the position described in the PAW. PennDOT works to assign a PAW to each major position in the organization. The Center for Performance Excellence led the implementation of PAWS within the Transportation University structure, an entity separate from Human Resources (HR), which used to be housed under the Deputy Secretary for Administration for Pennsylvania. The Transportation University leadership obtained organizational buy-in from PennDOT administrators and leadership, and department managers and supervisors were made aware of PAWs as a tool that may be useful to them. PennDOT worked with an outside contractor to create the model for PAWs, which had associated costs, but the PennDOT-specific PAWs have been created internally. While PennDOT does not have direct measures to evaluate the PAWs program, PennDOT supervisors, training coordinators, and employees interested in advancement consider PAWs a valuable resource that have guided recruitment and likely affected retention as well. PennDOT management views PAWs as a way of providing proper training and career direction to employees and views PAWs as a benefit to organizational efficiency and effectiveness.

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Job Classification and Design 101 Other Example Practices To serve as an additional resource for agencies interested in "Job Classification and Design," we have included a list of other practices that transportation agencies have implemented for this purpose. Additional information on each of the following practices can be found in one- to two-page summaries within the supplemental materials. Job Enrichment Use of Temporary Workers or Interns The practice summaries include information, such as the lead organization, practice description, practice purpose, targeted participants, return on investment (ROI) timeline, influence of the economy, innovativeness, and resources to find out more information on the individual practices.