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Table 6 Responses regarding outreach strategies Feb. 13, 2010, www.sfexaminer.com/local/ (Question 10) BART-denied-70M-in-stimulus-funds-for- Agencies airport-connector-84303722.html (last accessed Reporting 7/2/10). Engaging Marc Brenman and Richard A. Marcantonio, LEP Trip Outreach Strategies in Strategy Transportation Victory for Social Equity, Planetizen, Feb. 22, 2010, www.planetizen. Return receipt letters 0 com/node/42991 (last accessed 7/2/10). Signage on buses and shelters 12 Paul Cloos, Committee Move May Kill Immi- Notices to community-based 11 gration Bills, Apr. 24, 2008, blog.al.com/live/ organizations serving LEP 2008/04/committee_move_may_kill_immigr. populations Oral translators 8 html (last accessed 7/6/10). Advertising in media that serves 12 Tony Favro, American Cities Debate English- LEP communities Only Legislation, City Mayors, June 25, 2009, Other 6 www.citymayors.com/society/us-english-only. html (last accessed 7/6/10). Pat Harris, City of Nashville Rejects English- Only Law, Reuters, Jan. 22, 2009, www. precisely because of inadequate communication-- reuters.com/article/idUSTRE50M114200901 do not understand their rights and, so, do not file 23 (last accessed 7/1/10). complaints. In addition, there may be a certain num- Robert A. Kraft, Lewisville Decides Not to ber of LEP persons who are reluctant to file com- Pursue Official-English Resolution, Oct. 7, plaints due to cultural issues such as the reluctance 2008, www.immigration-law-answers-blog. to challenge the authorities.32 Finally, the absence of com/2008/10/articles/political-or-judicial/ lewisville-decides-not-to-pursue-official transit LEP cases may also be due to the fact that english-resolution/ (last accessed 7/2/10). there is no private right of action to enforce Title VI Richard Locker, Tennessee House Subcom- regulations. mittee Kills Bill to Require English-Only on Driver's Tests, The Commercial Appeal, May BIBLIOGRAPHY 12, 2010, www.commercialappeal.com/news/ 2010/may/12/tennessee-house-subcommittee- The Phase I research, conducted to scope the kills-bill-require-en/ (last accessed 7/6/10). LEP topic, was fairly wide ranging. The purpose of Guillermo Mayer and Richard A. Marcantonio, the bibliography is to document the research that was Bay Area Transit--Separate and Unequal, conducted. Some of the references identified during Race, Poverty & the Environment, Winter the beginning of the research process may be deemed 2005/2006, 20 www.urbanhabitat.org/node/ of limited interest, but are included as part of the 313 (last accessed 7/1/10). documentation. Metro Departments Not Sure About English Only's Impact, The City Paper, Dec. 29, 2008, nashvillecitypaper.com/content/city-news/ Articles metro-departments-not-sure-about-english- BART Denied $70M in Stimulus Funds for only%E2%80%99s-impact (last accessed Airport Connector, San Francisco Examiner, 8/19/10). John Miller, English-Only Drivers' Test Could Hinder Refugees, Idaho Statesman, Feb. 3, 2010, www.idahostatesman.com/2010/02/03/ 32Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT's Guidance 1065910/english-only-drivers-test-could.html Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient (last accessed 7/1/10). Populations, GAO-06-52, Language Access to Transportation Missouri, Other States Pursue English-Only Services, November 2005, p. 34, www.gao.gov/new.items/ Driver Testing Requirement, Land Line Mag- d0652.pdf. azine, Feb. 5, 2010 www.landlinemag.com/ 8

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todays_news/Daily/2010/Feb10/020110/020 Federal Agency Civil Rights Directors and 510-04.htm (last accessed 7/6/10). General Counsels), July 10, 2009, www.lep. Pat Muir, Mattawa Program a Matter of Inter- gov/whats_new/titlevi_enforcement_memo. pretation, Yakima Herald-Republic, Apr. 28, pdf. 2008, www.yakima-herald.com/stories/2008/ 4/28/mattawa-program-a-matter-of-inter pretation (last accessed 7/2/10). U.S. Department of Transportation Nashville Speaks Up: English Only Soundly 49 CFR 21.5, edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_ Defeated, Nashville City Paper, Jan. 23, 2009, 2008/octqtr/pdf/49cfr21.5.pdf. nashvillecitypaper.com/content/city-news/nash DOT Guidance to Recipients on Special Lan- ville-speaks-english-only-soundly-defeated guage Services to Limited English Proficient (last accessed 7/6/10). (LEP) Beneficiaries, 66 Fed. Reg. 6733, Jan. Andrew Nelson, Georgia Senate Asked to Side- 22, 2001, frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/ line Immigration Bill, The Georgia Bulletin, getdoc.cgi?dbname=2001_register&docid=01- Mar. 20, 2008, www.georgiabulletin.org/local/ 1745-filed.pdf. 2008/03/20/sideline/ (last accessed 7/1/10). Notice of Extended Period for Public Com- Public Transportation as a Civil Right, Public ments on DOT's Guidance to Recipients on Radio International, May 2, 2010, www.pri. Special Language Services to Limited English org/business/nonprofits/public-transportation- Proficient (LEP) Beneficiaries, 66 Fed. Reg. as-a-civil-right1972.html (last accessed 7/2/10). 16970, Mar. 28, 2001, frwebgate.access.gpo. States Pursue English-Only Driver Testing gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2001_regis Requirement, Land Line Magazine, Apr. 2, ter&docid=01-7618-filed.pdf. 2010, www.landlinemag.com/todays_news/ Policy Guidance Concerning Recipients' Re- Daily/2010/Mar10/032910/040210-02.htm sponsibilities to Limited English Proficient (last accessed 7/2/10). (LEP) Persons, 70 Fed. Reg. 74087-74100, Howard Witt, It's Official: English-Only Move- Dec. 14, 2005, edocket.access.gpo.gov/2005/ ment Gains Traction; Hispanic Civil Rights pdf/05-23972.pdf. Groups Alarmed, Chicago Tribune, Oct. 15, Comments on DOT Guidance, www.regula 2006, articles.chicagotribune.com/2006-10-15/ tions.gov/search/Regs/home.html#searchRe news/0610150356_1_farmers-branch-english- sults?Ne=11+8+8053+8098+8074+8066+80 only-movement-tim-o-hare (last accessed 84+1&Ntt=OST-2001-8696&Ntk=All&Ntx= 7/1/10). mode+matchall&N=0. English Language Requirement; Qualifications Department of Justice of Drivers; Withdrawal, 68 Fed. 43889-43891, July 24, 2003, edocket.access.gpo.gov/2003/ Commonly Asked Questions and Answers pdf/03-18597.pdf. Regarding Executive Order 13166, www.usdoj. Limited English Proficiency, www.dotcr.ost. gov/crt/cor/Pubs/lepqapr.php. dot.gov/asp/lep.asp. Executive Order 13166, Limited English Pro- ficiency Resource Document: Tips and Tools from the Field, September 21, 2004, www. Federal Cases lep.gov/resources/tips_and_tools-9-21-04.htm. Circuit Court Cases Guidance to Federal Financial Assistance Recipients Regarding Title VI Prohibition Colwell v. Department of Health and Human Against National Origin Discrimination Services, 558 F.3d 1112 (9th Cir. 2007) (chal- Affecting Limited English Proficient Persons, lenge to HHS LEP Policy Guidance). June 18, 2002, www.justice.gov/crt/cor/lep/ Espinoza v. Texas Department of Public DOJFinLEPFRJun182002.pdf. Safety, Aug. 25, 2005, www.ca5.uscourts.gov/ Strengthening of Enforcement of Title VI of the opinions/unpub/02/02-11168.0.wpd.pdf; Jus- Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Memo from Loretta tice Department Brief (discusses Title VI), King, Acting Assistant Attorney General to www.justice.gov/crt/briefs/espinoza.pdf. 9

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Labor/Community Strategy Center v. Los aclu.org/content/aclu-amicus-brief-alexander- Angeles County Metropolitan Transporta- v-sandoval; Department of Justice brief www. tion Authority, 263 F.3d 1041 (9th Cir. 2001) justice.gov/osg/briefs/2000/3mer/2mer/1999- (approving district court's orders concerning 1908.mer.aa.pdf; ProEnglish brief www.pro operation of LA County transportation sys- english.org/legal/sandoval/amicusbrief.html. tem enforcing consent decree concerning qual- Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974) (failure ity of bus service). to provide Chinese-American students with Maldonado v. City of Altus, 433 F.3d 1294 English language instruction denied them (10th Cir. 2006) (concerning English-only pol- meaningful opportunity to participate in pub- icy for city employees). lic education system, thus violating 601 of Modern Continental Construction Company, Civil Rights Act of 1964 and implementing Inc. v. Occupational Safety and Health Review, regulations). 305 F.3d 43 (1st Cir. 2002) (OSHA case involving LEP). Federal Requirements in General Save Our Valley v. Sound Transit, 335 F.3d 932 (9th Cir. 2002) (plaintiffs challenged light Executive Order 13166, Improving Access to rail plan, but court held no Section 1983 action Services for Persons with Limited English to enforce disparate impact claim under EPA's Proficiency, Aug. 11, 2000, www.justice.gov/ Title VI regulation). crt/cor/Pubs/eolep.php. South Camden Citizens in Action v. New Jer- Prepared Remarks of Acting Assistant Attorney sey Department of Environmental Protection, General Loretta King to the Federal Inter- 274 F.3d 771, 789 (3d Cir.2001) (holding no agency Working Group on Limited English Section 1983 action to enforce disparate impact Proficiency, www.justice.gov/crt/lep/whats_ claim under DOT's Title VI regulation). new/Kingremarks4_20_09.pdf. Save Our Valley v. Sound Transit, 335 F.3d What Federal Agencies and Federally Assisted 932 (9th Cir. 2002) (no Section 1983 action Programs Should Know about Providing available to enforce DOT regulation under Services to LEP Individuals, www.lep.gov/ Civil Rights Act). lepbrochure.pdf. Yniguez v. Arizonans for Official English, Mission of LEP.gov, Website of the Federal 69 F.3d 920 (9th Cir. 1994) (English-only Interagency Working Group on Limited Eng- requirement for government services found to lish Proficiency, www.lep.gov/. violate First Amendment). Language Assistance Self-Assessment and Planning Tool for Recipients of Federal Finan- District Court Cases cial Assistance, www.lep.gov/selfassesstool. htm. Darensburg v. Metropolitan Transportation Sub-Recipient Guide to Implementing Title VI Commission, 611 F.Supp.2d 994 (N.D. Cal. of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, www.trans- 2009) (rejecting challenge to MTC's funding portation.org/sites/ASCR/docs/Sub-recipient decisions as diverting funding from bus ser- Brochurefinal.pdf. vice to expanding rail service, disproportion- ately affecting minority bus riders in violation of California Government Code 11135).33 FHWA How to Engage Low-Literacy and Limited- Supreme Court Cases English-Proficiency Populations in Transpor- Alexander v. Sandoval, 532 U.S. 275 (U.S. tation Decisionmaking, www.fhwa.dot.gov/ 2001) (no private right of action to enforce dis- hep/lowlim/webbook.pdf. parate impact regulations); ACLU brief www. How to Identify Limited English Proficient (LEP) Populations in Your Locality, www. state.nj.us/oag/hts/downloads/LEP.ppt. 33Public Advocates discussion, www.publicadvocates.org/ Identifying and Engaging Low Literacy and ourwork/transportation/index.html#MTC. Limited English Proficiency Populations in the 10

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Transportation Decisionmaking Process, www. Metro (St. Louis, MO) planning.dot.gov/Peer/Atlanta/atlanta.asp. Central Arkansas Transit Authority (Little Rock, AR) FTA Central Oklahoma Transportation and Park- ing Authority (Oklahoma City, OK) Regulatory Requirements Central Puget Sound Regional Transit Author- Notice of Final Title VI and Title VI- ity (Seattle, WA) Dependent Guidelines for Federal Transit Chicago Transit Authority (Chicago, IL) Administration Recipients, 72 Fed. Reg. Greater Richmond Transit Company (Rich- 18732, April 13, 2007, edocket.access.gpo. mond, VA) gov/2007/pdf/E7-7066.pdf; C. 47021A, Title Louisiana Department of Transportation and VI and Title VI-Dependent Guidelines for Development (State DOT) Federal Transit Administration Recipients, Metropolitan Transportation Commission (San www.fta.dot.gov/documents/Title_VI_Circu Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Planning lar_4702.1A.pdf. Organization) Providing Language Access to Persons with Montgomery Area Metropolitan Planning Limited English Proficiency and Low Literacy, Organization (Montgomery, AL) www.fta.dot.gov/documents/LEPpresentation. New York City Transit (New York, NY) ppt. New York State DOT (State DOT) Implementing the Department of Transporta- Utah Transit Authority (Salt Lake City, UT) tion's Policy Guidance Concerning Recipients' Fort Worth Transportation Authority (Fort Responsibilities to Limited English Proficient Worth, TX) (LEP) Persons: A Handbook for Public Trans- Broward County Transit (Broward County, FL) portation Providers (April 13, 2007), www. City of Phoenix Public Transportation Depart- fta.dot.gov/documents/LEP_Handbook.doc. ment (Phoenix, AZ) Brownsville Urban System (Brownsville, TX) BART Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority January 15, 2010, letter to Metropolitan Trans- (Buffalo, NY) portation Commission and San Francisco Bay Detroit DOT (Detroit, MI) Area Rapid Transit District, www.publicadvo Montana DOT (State DOT) cates.org/news/documents/Transit/FTA_letter_ Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority to_MTC_and_BART_1-15-10.pdf. (Boston, MA) February 12, 2010, letter to Metropolitan Trans- Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation portation Commission and San Francisco Bay Authority (Philadelphia, PA) Area Rapid Transit District, www.mtc.ca. Iowa DOT (State DOT) gov/pdf/OAC_2-12-10_memo.pdf. Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority February 10, 2010, Oakland Airport Connector (San Jose, CA) Update, www.mtc.ca.gov/pdf/oac.pdf. Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris Comment on BART Draft Corrective Action County (Houston, Texas), vvoice.vo.llnwd.net/ Plan, www.publicadvocates.org/news/docu e7/3676770.0.PDF ments/Transit/Supplemental_comment_letter_ to_FTA_re_BART_Corrective_Action_Plan. Complaints pdf. May 2, 2008, letter to Metropolitan Transit Compliance Reviews (www.fta.dot.gov/ Authority of Harris County re DOT Complaint civilrights/title6/civil_rights_5463.html) Numbers 2008-0154 and 2008-0171 (alleging lack of compliance with LEP requirements for Tennessee DOT (Nashville, TN) outreach concerning proposed North Corridor The Regional Transit District (Denver, CO) Light Rail Transit alignment). Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (Oak- May 23, 2008, letter to Metropolitan Transit land, CA) Authority of Harris County re DOT Complaint 11

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Number 2008-0152 (alleging lack of compli- Christopher Dunn, Time to Fix Civil Rights Act ance with LEP requirements for outreach con- of 1964, academic.udayton.edu/race/02rights/ cerning proposed Southeast Corridor Light civilrights04.htm (last accessed 7/6/10). Rail alignment). Mary K. Fitzgerald, Small-Handles, Big Record of Decision, Southeast Corridor Fixed Impacts: When Should the National Environ- Guideway Transit Project in Houston, Texas, mental Policy Act Require an Environmental www.d9publicaffairs.com/posted/1068/SE_ Impact Statement?, 23 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. Corridor_ROD_FINAL_07_15_08.217204.pdf. 437 (Winter, 1996). Urban Habitat Program v. Bay Area Rapid Focus on Civil Rights of Limited English Speak- Transit District (September 1, 2009 Complaint ers: Language Access to Government Benefits Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Services (Chapter 1: National Employment and Executive Order 12898), www.scribd. Law Project, Low Pay, High Risk: State Mod- com/doc/25513832/FTA-TitleVI-Complaint- els for Advancing Immigrant Workers' Rights, 09109-Final-0. updated November 2003), nelp.3cdn.net/ 460e6fd6e134416d6d_lgm6bnkpa.pdf (last Other accessed 7/6/10). Report on 2005 National Workshop on Trans- Roger C. Hartley, Congressional Devolution portation Equity, www.fta.dot.gov/documents/ of Immigration Policymaking: A Separation of Masterdocument.doc. Powers Critique, 2 Duke J. of Constitutional Law & Publ. Policy 93 (2007). William A. Liess, A Call for Doctrinal Con- Law Review/Legal Analysis Articles sistency in the Adjudication of 1983 Claims Raquel Aldana, On Rights, Federal Citizen- Based on Violations of Federal Regulations, ship, and the "Alien," 46 Washburn L.J. 263 38 Rutgers Law J. 947 (2007). (2007). Bradford C. Mank, Can Administrative Regu- F. Kaid Benfield, Running on Empty: The Case lations Interpret Rights Enforceable Under for a Sustainable National Transportation Sys- Section 1983?: Why Chevron Deference Sur- tem, 25 Envtl. L. 651 (1995). vives Sandoval and Gonzaga, 32 Flor. St. U.L. Derek Black, Picking Up the Pieces after Rev. 843 (2005). Alexander v. Sandoval: Resurrecting a Private National Immigration Law Center, Increasing Cause of Action for Disparate Impact, 81 N.C. Access to Services for Limited English Pro- L. Rev. 356 (2002). ficient Persons, Issue Brief, Aug. 7, 2003, Tanya Broder, State and Local Policies on www.migrationinformation.org/integration/ Immigrant Access to Services: Promoting language_portal/files/NILC.pdf (last accessed Integration or Isolation?, National Immigra- 7/6/10). tion Law Center, May 2007, www.nilc.org/ Cristina M. Rodrguez, Language and Partic- immspbs/sf_benefits/statelocalimmpolicies ipation, 94 Cal. L. Rev. 687 (2006). 06-07_2007-05-24.pdf. George Rutherglen, Major Issues in the Federal Robert Bullard, Just Transportation: New Law of Employment Discrimination, Fourth Solutions for Old Problems, 28 Environmen- Edition, Federal Judicial Center, 2004, www. tal Action (Spring/Summer 1996), reprinted fjc.gov/public/pdf.nsf/lookup/empldis4.pdf/$f at www.ejrc.cau.edu/justtransarticle.htm (last ile/empldis4.pdf (last accessed 7/6/10). accessed 7/6/10). Thomas W. Sanchez, Rich Stolz, and Jacinta S. Kristina M. Campbell, Local Illegal Immigra- Ma, Moving to Equity: Addressing Inequitable tion Relief Act Ordinances: A Legal, Policy, Effects of Transportation Policies on Minori- and Litigation Analysis, 84 Denv. U.L. Rev. ties, The Civil Rights Project at Harvard and 1041 (2007). the Center for Community Change, 2003, civil- Lisa S. Core, Alexander v. Sandoval: Why a rightsproject.ucla.edu/research/metro-and- Supreme Court Case about Driver's Licenses regional-inequalities/transportation/moving- Matters to Environmental Justice Advocates, to-equity-addressing-inequitable-effects-of- 30 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 191 (2002). transportation-policies-on-minorities/sanchez- 12

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moving-to-equity-transportation-policies.pdf Chicago Transit Authority Service Standards, (last accessed 8/19/10). July 2001, www.transitchicago.com/assets/1/ Paul Taylor, The Risks Posed to National miscellaneous_documents/servicestandards Security and Other Programs by Proposals to 129737.pdf. Authorize Private Disparate Impact Claims Coast Transit Authority Language Assistance Under Title VI, 46 Harv. J. on Legislation 57 Implementation Plan for Limited English Profi- (2009). ciency Persons, August 3, 2009, www.grpc. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Environ- com/transit_files/CTA%20LEP%20Document mental Justice Litigation and Remedies: The %20Final%20080309.pdf. Impact of Sandoval and South Camden (Chap- Crenshaw Transit Corridor Project, Draft ter 4: Not in My Backyard: Executive Order Environmental Impact Statement/Environ 12,898 and Title VI as Tools for Achieving ment Impact Report, 6.0--Community Par- Environmental Justice), www.usccr.gov/pubs/ ticipation, www.metro.net/projects/crenshaw_ envjust/ch4.htm. corridor/crenshaw-transit-corridor-deisdeir/ Bharathi A. Venkatraman, Lost in Translation: (click on "Community Outreach" link). Limited English Proficient Populations and Denver RTD's Title VI Policy Statement, the Police, The Police Chief, vol. 73, no. 4, www.rtd-denver.com/TitleVI.shtml. April 2006, policechiefmagazine.org/maga Detroit: DOT Launches Interpretive Outreach zine/index.cfm?fuseaction = display_arch& Services for Spanish-Speaking Communities, article_id=861&issue_id=42006 (last accessed January 08, 2010, www.probono.net/nlaan/ 7/6/10). news/article.290789?. Rosa Cuison Villazor, Language Rights and Link Transit--Title VI Policy, www.link Loss of Judicial Remedy: the Impact of Alexan- transit.com/index2.php?option=com_content der v. Sandoval on Language Minorities (Chap- &task=view&id =133&pop =1&page=0&Item ter 10: Awakening from the Dream: Civil id=156. Rights Under Siege and the New Struggle for Lower Savannah Council of Governments Equal Justice, Denise C. Morgan, Rachel D. Godsil, and Joy Moses, eds., Carolina Aca- Best Friend Express and Dial-a-Ride Title VI demic Press, Durham, NC, 2005), article down- Public Complaint Process, www.bestfriend loadable from papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers. express.com/pdf/BFE%20and%20DAR%20 cfm?abstract_id=982433. Title%20VI%20Complaint%20Process.pdf. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transpor- tation Authority, Equal Employment Oppor- Legislation tunity, www.docstoc.com/docs/29835154/ Civil Rights Act of 2008, H.R. 5129, intro- Title-VI-Statement-of-Policy. duced January 23, 2008. Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris Civil Rights Act of 2008, S. 2554, introduced County Title VI Complaint Process, www. January 24, 2008. ridemetro.org/AboutUs/TitleVIComplaint Process.aspx. Mid Mon Valley Transit Authority Limited Local Practices and Requirements English Proficiency Plan, www.mmvta.com/ Albany Transit System 2008 Title VI Program OtherPDF/LEPPlan.pdf. March 2008, www.albany.ga.us/filestorage/ Oakland Municipal Code, Chapter 2.30, Equal 1798 / 2879/ 2941/ Final_ ATS_Title_VI_ Access to Services, library.municode.com/ Program_5-14-08.pdf. HTML/16308/level2/T2_C2.30.html.34 Baltimore Metropolitan Council, Transporta- tion Equity [Environmental Justice; Limited English Proficiency] www.baltometro.org/ transportation-planning/transportation-equity. 34AB 781 was introduced in the California legislature in 2009 to Bend Area Transit: Fare and Service Change try to address concerns about risks of the Oakland ordinance; Policy, 5-09, www.ci.bend.or.us/bend_area_ info.sen.ca.gov/pub/09-10/bill/asm/ab_0751-0800/ab_781_cfa_ transit/docs/FARE_POLICY_Final.doc. 20090511_155212_asm_comm.html. 13

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San Francisco Municipal Code, Chapter 91: for State & Local Policymakers and Advocates, Equal Access to Services, www.municode. Jan. 15, 2009, www.aila.org/content/fileviewer. com/content/4201/14131/HTML/ch091.html. aspx?docid=24681&linkid=172618. Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission Lim- Denise Bailey, Sandra Swiacki, Annemarie ited English Proficiency Assessment, www. Byrnes, James Buckley, Diane King, Valerie spcregion.org/pdf/ppp/LEP%20Assessment. Piper, Mara Marino, Subhash Mundle, George pdf. Pierlott, and Andrew Lynd, Transportation City Utilities of Springfield Transit Services Equity in Emergencies: A Review of the Prac- Limited English Proficient (LEP) Plan, June tices of State Departments of Transportation, 2007, www.cityutilities.net/transit/lep-plan. Metropolitan Planning Organizations, and pdf. Transit Agencies in 20 Metropolitan Areas, Santa Cruz Metropolitan Transit District Title Final Report, May, 2007, FTA-PA-26-8001- VI Program Regulation and Complaint Proce- 2007, downloadable from www.fta.dot.gov/ dure, Dec. 18, 2009, www.scmtd.com/images/ civil_rights/civil_rights_6343.html. department/legal/policies/web_titlevi_policy_ Communities for a Better Environment, Urban eng.pdf. Habitat, and Public Advocates, Inc., MTC, Sun Tran Limited English Proficiency Plan, Where Are Our Buses?, Dec. 20, 2006, urban October 2007, www.suntran.com/pdf/about/ habitat.org/files/Where%20are%20our%20 Limited%20English%20Proficiency%20Plan buses.pdf. %20final.pdf. Community Impact Assessment and Environ- TriMet Language Implementation Plan, www. mental Justice for Transit Agencies: A Refer- fta.dot.gov/documents/TriMetimplementation ence, www.nctr.usf.edu/PDF/416-05.PDF. plan(3).doc. Filling the Gap: Environmental Justice in (Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Transportation Toolkit, 2007, www.fta.dot.gov/ Authority [WAMTA]) Metro's Commitment documents/TECRP_Task_I-3B_Final.doc. to Civil Rights--Title VI, www.wmata.com/ International Immigration: The Impact on about_metro/civil_rights.cfm. Maryland Communities, Department of Leg- Language Assistance Plan for Washington islative Services, Office of Policy Analysis, Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, October Annapolis, Maryland, January 2008, mlis.state. 2007, www.wmata.com/pdfs/titleiv/WMATA_ md.us/Other/Fiscal_Briefings_and_Reports/ LAP_PLAN.pdf. 2008_Immigration_Impact.pdf. July 9, 2009, WMATA letter to D.C. Lan- KFH Group, Inc., NCHRP Research Results guage Access Coalition, www.dclanguageac Digest 340: State DOT Best Practices for cess.org/cm/files/WMATA%20Letter%20to Title VI Compliance (December 2009), online %20Coalition%207%209%2009%20(2).pdf. pubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rrd_340. pdf. KFH Group, Inc., NCHRP Web-Only Docu- Reports/Studies/Policy Papers ment 147: Reference Materials for State DOT Access for All Advisory Committee's 2001 Title VI Compliance: Appendices to NCHRP Report to the National Capital Region Trans- Research Results Digest 340 (August 2009), portation Planning Board, March 20, 2002, onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_ www.mwcog.org/uploads/pub-documents/Bl5 w147.pdf. X20030814105027.pdf. Claudia Knezek and Janet Hansen, New Jersey A Citizen's Guide to Using Federal Environ- DOT 2004 Research Implementation Report, mental Laws to Secure Environmental Justice, cait.rutgers.edu/system/files/u1/04_NJDOT_ 2002, yosemite.epa.gov/R10/ocrej.nsf/eb1daa Research_Implementation_Study-Final.pdf 9965e73fdf88256b800071a40b/280e766a645 L.A. Speaks: Language Diversity and English 2517e882570ad00833d22/$FILE/citizen_ Proficiency by Los Angeles County Service guide_ej.pdf. Planning Area, 2008, demographics.apalc. American Immigration Lawyers Association, org/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/la-speaks- Navigating the Immigration Debate: A Guide final-031908.pdf. 14

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Rongfang (Rachel) Liu, Mobility Information bama's common language in violation of Ala- Needs of Limited English Proficiency (LEP) bama constitution; precedential value of San- Travelers in New Jersey, Final Report, doval v. Hagan, 197 F.3d 484 (11th Cir.1999) December 2004, transportation.njit.edu/nctip/ not reached).35 final_report/LEP.htm. Family Bridges, Inc. v. Lindheim, Case No. National Conference of State Legislatures, A 08409445, Superior Court of the State of Cal- Summary of State Studies on Fiscal Impacts ifornia in and for the County of Alameda.36 of Immigrants, March 17, 2009, www.ncsl. In RE: Initiative Petition No. 366, State Ques- org/default.aspx?tabid=16867 (last accessed tion No. 689, 46 P.3d 123, 2002 OK 21 (2002) 7/6/10). (English-only petition held constitutionally Progressive States Network, The Anti- flawed). Immigrant Movement that Failed: Positive People v. Garcia-Cepero, 22 Misc 3d 490, 874 Integration Policies by State Governments Still N.Y.S.2d 689, 2008 NY Slip Op 28417 (N.Y. Far Outweigh Punitive Policies Aimed at New Sup. Ct., 2008) (providing warnings concern- Immigrants, September 2008, www.progres ing breathalyzer test in English to person who sivestates.org/content/903. obviously did not speak English did not meet The Struggle for Transit Justice: Race, Space, requirements of New York Motor Vehicle and Social Equity in Los Angeles, 2006, www. Code; procedures employed violated defen- spa.ucla.edu/up/webfiles/garrett%20disserta dant's due process and equal protection rights tion%202006.pdf. and discriminated against non-English- Transportation Research Board, Special Report speaking defendant). 294: The Role of Transit in Emergency Evacu- Ruiz v. Hull, 957 P.2d 984, 191 Ariz. 441 ation (2008), onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/ (1998) (Arizona constitutional provision requir- sr/sr294.pdf. ing all government officials and employees U.S. Government Accountability Office, Bet- performing government business to act only ter Dissemination and Oversight of DOT's in English held to violate First Amendment Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for and Equal Protection Clause of Fourteenth Limited English-Proficient Populations, GAO- Amendment). 06-52 (2005), www.gao.gov/new.items/d0652. pdf. Carol Wright, The Changing Face of America: State Practices and Requirements Implications for Public Transit, Small Urban Dymally-Alatorre Bilingual Services Act, Cal- & Rural Transit Center, Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute, North Dakota State ifornia Codes--Government Code--Section University, downloadable from www.docstoc. 7290-7299.8, www.spb.ca.gov/bilingual/dy com/docs/27565223/The-anti-discrimination- mallyact.htm. ordinance-which-focuses-on-access-to. District of Columbia Language Access Pro- gram, ohr.dc.gov/ohr/cwp/view,a,3,q,636135. asp. State Cases District of Columbia, Language Access in the Alaskans for a Common Language, Inc. v. District: An Annual Compliance Review and Kritz, 170 P.3d 183 (Alaska 2007) (Alaska's English-only law held to unconstitutionally 35 The Southeastern Legal Foundation filed another challenge to infringe on speech rights of government offi- the Alabama DOT practice. Alabama official English case re- cials and employees and to limit Alaskans' filed, www.proenglish.org/legal/legalindex.html (last accessed ability to participate fully in public life; 7/6/10). unconstitutional portions of law severable). 36 Equal Access Advocates Sue City of Oakland for Failing Cole v. Riley, 989 So.2d 1001 (Alabama 2007) Non-English Speaking Residents, Sept. 15, 2008, www.public (ProEnglish challenge to offering written por- advocates.org/docs/OaklandEAOPressRelease091208FIN.pdf; tion of driver's license exams in languages Oakland Sued for Failure to Comply with Language Access other than English rejected for not showing Law, Sept. 17, 2008, californiaworkersblog.com/display_blog. that multilingual tests diminish English as Ala- cfm?bid=71110F4C-1635-3B0C-E1CEE8433C760CC6. 15

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5-Year Checkpoint, newsroom.dc.gov/file. www.state.nj.us/transportation/business/civil aspx/release/18875/08_Lang_comp_rpt_2.pdf. rights/pdf/lep_implementation.pdf. Hawaii Language Access Statute: HRS, Chap- New Mexico, Executive Order 2005-056, ter 371, Part II, 371-31 to 37 (Act 290, Environmental Justice Executive Order, www. SLH--July 10, 2006), www.capitol.hawaii. nmenv.state.nm.us/Justice/EO_2005_056.pdf. gov/hrscurrent/Vol07_Ch0346-0398/HRS03 Washington State DOT Title VI Responsi- 71/HRS_0371-0031.htm. bilities, wadot.wa.gov/NR/rdonlyres/CFBD0 Hawaii DOT Language Access Plan (2009), E84-54DD-462D-AB2E-43DFE28E339A/0/ hawaii.gov/dot/administration/ocr/title6/ WSDOTTitleVIResponsibilites.pdf. language-access-plan-2009.pdf/view. Hawaii Conference on Language Access, Other LEP Resources Ho'opono: Plan Implementation & Promising Practices (2009), hawaii.gov/labor/ola/2nd- New Jersey DOT Guide to Limited English annual-language-access-conference-septem Proficiency Under Title VI, www.state.nj.us/ ber-28-2009/Conference%20Booklet%20-% transportation/business/civilrights/pdf/lepbro 20Reduced%20for%20Web.pdf. chure.pdf. Hawaii: H.B. 2896: Making an Appropriation NJDOT Policy and Procedures Development for the Statewide Language Access Bank, Study: Title VI, Environmental Justice, and www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2008/testi LEP: Effective Practices, August 2008, www. mony/HB2896_LAB_02-01-08_.pdf. state.nj.us/transportation/business/civilrights/ Language Legislation in the U.S.A., www. pdf/effectivepractices.pdf. languagepolicy.net/archives/langleg.htm. New Mexico Passenger Transportation Asso- Maryland: Maryland Code, State Govern- ciation, What's an LEP Plan? An Overview of ment, Title 10, Government Procedures, Sub- the U.S. DOT Guidance on Language Assis- title 11, Equal Access to Public Services www. tance for Limited English Proficient (LEP) michie.com/maryland/lpext.dll?f=templates& Persons, Annual Conference, Apr. 27, 2009, fn=main-h.htm&cp=mdcode; Maryland Tran- www.nmshtd.state.nm.us/upload/images/ sit Administration to have full implementation Programs-Transit%20and%20Rail-Transit/ by July 1, 2005, 10-1103. Providing equal LEP.ppt. access to public services: subsection (c)(iii)(3). Ohio DOT, Civil Rights and Public Transporta- Massachusetts: Environmental Justice Policy tion, September 2008, www.dot.state.oh.us/ of the Executive Office of Environmental Divisions/TransSysDev/Transit/Documents/ Affairs, www.mass.gov/Eoeea/docs/eea/ej/ Programs/Training/Civil%20Rights%20Train ej_factsheet_english.pdf. ing%20Material/Civil%20Rights%20and%20 New Jersey DOT (NJDOT), Limited English Public%20Transportation.pdf. Proficiency (LEP) Guidelines, www.state.nj. Washington DOT English to Spanish Glossary us/transportation/business/civilrights/pdf/lep of Transportation Terms, www.wsdot.gov/NR/ guidelines.pdf. rdonlyres/B8B5F5EE-186F-4220-BAA7-59E NJDOT Title VI Limited English Proficiency CD69B1AC0/0/EnglishSpanishTranslation. (LEP) Implementation Plan, October 2008, pdf. 16