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January 2011 TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Responsible Senior Program Officer: Gwen Chisholm Smith Research Results Digest 98 SYNTHESIS OF INFORMATION RELATED TO TRANSIT PROBLEMS This is a staff digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems," for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. Individual studies for the project are managed by Donna L. Vlasak, Senior Program Officer, with assistance from Jon M. Williams, Program Director, Synthesis Studies, serving under the Studies and Special Programs Division of the Transportation Research Board, Stephen R. Godwin, Director. BACKGROUND Suggestions for synthesis topics may be The Transit Cooperative Research Pro- sent to the TCRP Manager or Synthesis gram (TCRP) was established in 1992. The Staff at any time (see address on back). U.S. Department of Transportation pro- You can submit your recommendation at: posed the TCRP, and it was authorized in http://www.trb.org/Studies/Synthesis/ the Intermodal Surface Transportation Effi- Syntheses.asp under "Synthesis Topic ciency Act (ISTEA) of 1991. The program Submittals." Topics suggested must be was reauthorized in the Transportation Eq- accompanied by a brief (one or two uity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) and paragraphs) scope statement, including the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient a discussion of the problem. A title Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for (preferably 10 words or less) and the Users (SAFETEA-LU). On May 13, 1992, name and affiliation of the submitter are a memorandum agreement outlining op- erating procedures was executed by three also necessary. Identification of infor- cooperating organizations: the Federal Tran- mation sources is appreciated. If a topic sit Administration (FTA); the National is not selected, it must be resubmitted Academies, acting through the Transporta- the following year to be considered. An- tion Research Board (TRB); and the Tran- nually, synthesis topics are typically due sit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), by the end of March. The TCRP Over- a non-profit educational and research orga- sight Panel for the project meets in nization established by the American Pub- May/June to select new topics based on lic Transportation Association (APTA). The funding available. memorandum agreement was updated on January 12, 1999. Interested in writing a synthesis? For details contact Donna L. Vlasak by INTRODUCTION e-mail at dvlasak@nas.edu or by phone at 202/334-2974 or Jon Williams at Transit administrators, engineers, and jwilliams@nas.edu or by phone at 202/ researchers often face problems for which 334-3245. information already exists, either in docu- mented form or as undocumented experi-

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ence and practice. This information may be frag- its preparation. As the processes of advancement con- mented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a conse- tinue, new knowledge can be expected to be added to quence, full knowledge of what has been learned that which is now on hand; eventually the synthesis about a problem may not be brought to bear on its may need to be updated or redone. If you believe that solution. Costly research findings may go unused, a synthesis should be updated, it would be appreciated valuable experience may be overlooked, and due if you would contact TRB and let us know. consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. Selection of Topics There is information on nearly every subject of TCRP Project Panel J-7 meets each year (typically concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives in May) to select topics for study using funds from the from research or from the work of practitioners faced upcoming fiscal year. The membership of this com- with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide mittee is given in Table 1. Current funding allows for a systematic means for assembling and evaluating initiation of approximately seven syntheses per year. such useful information and to make it available to The following factors are considered in the se- the entire transit community, the Transit Cooperative lection process for synthesis topics: Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee authorized the Transportation The problem should be widespread enough to Research Board to undertake a continuing study. generate broad interest in the synthesis. This study, TCRP Project J-7, "Synthesis of Informa- The topic should be timely and critical with tion Related to Transit Problems," searches out and respect to economic impact, safety, or social synthesizes useful knowledge from all available impact. sources and prepares concise, documented reports on The topic is appropriate if current practice is specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute nonuniform or inconsistent from agency to a TCRP report series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. agency, or if the validity of some practices appears to be questionable. The quality and quantity of useful available THE SYNTHESIS PROGRAM information should indicate a need to organize This synthesis series reports on current knowl- and compress that which has already been edge and practice, in a compact format, without the learned and written on the topic. detailed directions usually found in handbooks or The topic should not be one where ongoing design manuals. Each report in the series provides a research or other activities in progress might compendium of the best knowledge available on be expected to render the synthesis obsolete those measures found to be the most successful in shortly after completion. resolving specific problems. To develop these syn- The continued success of this project depends on theses in a comprehensive manner and to ensure in- a constant supply of worthy synthesis topics solicited clusion of significant knowledge, TRB employs a annually from a variety of sources, including transit consultant to gather and analyze available informa- officials, equipment and service suppliers, research or- tion from numerous sources, including a large num- ganizations, FTA, APTA, and TRB committees. The ber of transit agencies. A panel of experts in the sub- interest of those who have recommended topics is sin- ject area is established to guide the consultants in cerely appreciated, and they are urged to continue. organizing and evaluating data collected on each topic and to review the synthesis report. For each topic, the project objectives are (1) to lo- Conduct of the Studies cate and assemble documented information; (2) to Throughout the year, following the J-7 project learn what practice has been used for solving or alle- panel's selection of topics, studies are initiated in the viating problems; (3) to identify all ongoing research; order of priority assigned by the committee. A panel (4) to learn what problems remain largely unsolved; consisting of practitioners and researchers is formed and (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the use- for each topic. At its first meeting, this topic panel ful information that is acquired. thoroughly discusses the topic, refines the tentative Each synthesis is an immediately useful document scope, suggests sources of information, and selects that records practices that were acceptable within the the consultant based on expression of interest re- limitations of the knowledge available at the time of ceived in response to an industry-wide solicitation. 2

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Table 1 TCRP PROJECT PANEL J-7 Name Affiliation Chair Dwight A. Ferrell Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Member Debra W. Alexander Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI Member Donna DeMartino San Joaquin Regional Transit District, Stockton, CA Member Mark W. Fuhrmann Metro Transit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN Member Robert H. Irwin Consultant, Sooke, BC, Canada Member Jeanne Krieg Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority, Antioch, CA Member Paul J. Larrousse National Transit Institute, New Brunswick, NJ Member David A. Lee Connecticut Transit, Hartford, CT Member Frank T. Martin PBS&J, Tallahassee, FL Member Bradford J. Miller Des Moines Area Regional Transit Authority, Des Moines, IA Member Hayward M. Seymore, III Kitsap Transit, Bremerton, WA Member Frank Tobey First Transit, Inc., Moscow, TN Member Pam Ward Ottumwa Transit Authority, Ottumwa, IA Liaison Michael Baltes Federal Transit Administration, Washington, D.C. Liaison Lisa Colbert Federal Transit Administration, Washington, D.C. Liaison Kevin Dow American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. Liaison Jennifer Rosales Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Following this meeting, an agreement is negoti- Table 2 SYNTHESIS STUDIES--In Progress as of ated with the consultant to gather information on the January 2011 topic, synthesize it, and draft a report. Typically, the No. Title agreement covers a period of 9 months. Information gathering and preparation of the first draft of the SA-23 Practices in the Development and synthesis report usually takes 5 months. This draft is Deployment of Downtown Circulators then reviewed by the topic panel with the consultant, SA-24 Video Surveillance Uses By Rail Transit often at a second panel meeting. Subsequent drafts Agencies and a meeting are scheduled if needed, although this SA-25 Use of Mobile Device Technology for Real-Time Transit Information rarely occurs. SA-26 Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free After the staff is substantially satisfied with the Transit Systems report, a final draft is sent to the members of the SA-27 Off-Board Transit Fare Payment Using TCRP Project Panel J-7 for their approval. At the Proof-of-Purchase Verification same time, members from the topic panel have SB-17 Innovative Rural Transit Services their last chance to review the report. Comments SB-18 Strollers, Carts, and Other Large Items on from these reviews are incorporated into the final Buses and Trains SB-19 Ridesharing as a Complement to Transit report, which is usually published as a TCRP Syn- SB-20 Proactive Use of Social Media in Public thesis of Transit Practice. Transportation SE-06 Successful Practices for Maintenance, Repair, and Replacement of Elevators and Escalators and Related Safety Issues Studies in Progress as of January 2011 in U.S. Transit Agencies SF-14 Practices to Protect Bus Operators from Work is currently under way on the topics Passenger Assault listed in Table 2. Questions on these topics should SF-15 Practices in Wayside Rail Track/Transit be addressed to the Project Study Manager, Donna Worker Safety Protection L. Vlasak (e-mail: dvlasak@nas.edu and 202/ SF-16 Improving Transit Safety Through Rewards 334-2974) or the Synthesis Studies Manager, and Discipline Jon Williams (e-mail: jwilliams@nas.edu and SG-11 Transit Asset Condition Reporting SH-13 Public Participation Strategies for Transit 202/334-3245). 3

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Available Publications http://www.trb.org/bookstore. Please send check orders to: TRB, Dept. 289, Washington, D.C., 20055 The Syntheses of Transit Practice that have been or fax to: 202/334-2519. completed under this project are listed in Table 3. Copies of these syntheses can be obtained from the Index of Topic Studies Publications Office, Transportation Research Board, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20001; by Table 4 is a key word index of published synthe- calling 202/334-3213; and through the Internet at: ses and studies currently in progress. Table 3 PUBLISHED TCRP SYNTHESES No. Title/Pages/Price 1 Safe Operating Procedures for Alternative Fuel Buses (1993) 48 pp., $16.00 2 Low-Floor Transit Buses (1994) 43 pp., $12.00 3 Incentive Programs to Improve Transit Employee Performance (1994) 44 pp., $12.00 4 Integration of Bicycles and Transit (1994) 58 pp., $12.00 5 Management Information Systems (1994) 77 pp., $19.00 6 The Role of Performance-Based Measures in Allocating Funding for Transit Operations (1994) 52 pp., $11.00 7 Regulatory Impacts on Design and Retrofit of Bus Maintenance Facilities (1994) 50 pp., $12.00 8 Retrofit of Buses to Meet Clean Air Regulations (1994) 48 pp., $12.00 9 Waste Control Practices at Bus Maintenance Facilities (1995) 26 pp., $10.00 10 Bus Route Evaluation Standards (1995) 54 pp., $12.00 11 System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios (1995) 46 pp., $12.00 12 Transit Bus Service Line and Cleaning Functions (1995) 48 pp., $14.00 13 Risk Management for Small and Medium Transit Agencies (1995) 31 pp., $13.00 14 Innovative Suburb-to-Suburb Transit Practices (1995) 50 pp., $14.00 15 System-Specific Spare Rail Vehicle Ratios (1995) 43 pp., $13.00 16 Changing Roles and Practices of Bus Field Supervisors (1996) 45 pp., $13.00 17 Customer Information at Bus Stops (1996) 64 pp., $18.00 18 Bus Occupant Safety (1996) 55 pp., $15.00 19 Passenger Transfer System Review (1996) 37 pp., $14.00 20 Transit-Focused Development (1997) 55 pp., $16.00 21 Improving Transit Security (1997) 36 pp., $15.00 22 Monitoring Bus Maintenance Performance (1997) 48 pp., $16.00 23 Inspection Policy and Procedures for Rail Transit Tunnels and Underground Structures (1997) 95 pp., $25.00 24 AVL Systems for Bus Transit (1997) 47 pp., $16.00 25 Light Rail Vehicle Compression Requirements (1997) 34 pp., $15.00 26 Bus Transit Fare Collection Practices (1997) 29 pp., $14.00 27 Emergency Preparedness for Transit Terrorism (1997) 73 pp., $21.00 28 Managing Transit Construction Contract Claims (1998) 50 pp., $17.00 29 Passenger Counting Technologies and Procedures (1998) 50 pp., $23.00 30 ADA Paratransit Eligibility Certification Practices (1998) 38 pp., $16.00 31 Paratransit Contracting and Service Delivery Methods (1998) 35 pp., $16.00 32 Transit Advertising Revenue: Traditional and New Sources and Structures (1998) 58 pp., $20.00 33 Practices in Assuring Employee Availability (1999) 69 pp., $27.00 34 Data Analysis for Bus Planning and Monitoring (2000) 62 pp., $27.00 35 Information Technology Update for Transit (2000) 98 pp., $31.00 36 Identifying and Reducing Fraudulent Third Party Tort Claims Against Public Transit Agencies (2000) 58 pp., $25.00 37 Communicating with Persons with Disabilities in a Multimodal Environment (2001) 48 pp., $26.00 38 Electronic Surveillance Technology on Transit Vehicles (2001) 57 pp., $28.00 39 Transportation on College and University Campuses (2001) 62 pp., $28.00 4

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Table 3 (Continued ) No. Title/Pages/Price 40 A Challenged Employment System: Hiring, Training, Performance Evaluation, and Retention of Bus Operators (2001) 72 pp., $29.00 41 The Use of Small Buses in Transit Service (2002) 72 pp., $15.00 42 Use of Flexible Funds for Transit Under ISTEA and TEA-21 (2002) 40 pp., $15.00 43 Effective Use of Transit Websites (2002) 79 pp., $16.00 44 Training for On-Board Bus Electronic (2002) 63 pp., $15.00 45 Customer-Focused Transit (2002) 100 pp., $17.00 46 Diversity Training Initiatives (2003) 59 pp., $15.00 47 Corporate Culture as the Driver of Transit Leadership Practices (2003) 91 pp., $17.00 48 Real-Time Bus Arrival Information Systems (2003) 61 pp., $15.00 49 Yield to Bus Programs--State of the Practice (2003) 78 pp., $16.00 50 Use of Rear-Facing Position for Common Wheelchairs on Transit Buses (2003) 42 pp., $14.00 51 Transit Advertising Sales Agreements (2004) 99 pp., $18.00 52 Transit Operator Health and Wellness Programs (2004) 80 pp., $17.00 53 Operational Experiences with Flexible Services in Transit Systems (2004) 57 pp., $16.00 54 Maintenance Productivity Practices (2004) 92 pp., $18.00 55 Geographic Information Systems Applications in Transit (2004) 60 pp., $16.00 56 Performance-Based Measures in Transit Fund Allocation (2004) 74 pp., $16.00 57 Computer-Aided Scheduling and Dispatch in Demand-Responsive Transit Services (2004) 79 pp., $17.00 58 Emergency Response Procedures for Natural Gas Transit Vehicles (2005) 53 pp., $15.00 59 Strategic Planning and Management in Transit Agencies (2005) 44 pp., $15.00 60 Practices in no-Show and Late Cancellation Policies for ADA Paratransit (2005) 49 pp., $16.00 61 Maintenance Staffing Levels for Light Rail Transit (2005) 41 pp., $16.00 62 Integration of Bicycles and Transit (2005) 70 pp., $17.00 63 On-Board and Intercept Transit Survey Techniques (2005) 91 pp., $19.00 64 Bus Use of Shoulders (2006) 91 pp., $35.00 65 Transit Agency Participation in Medicaid Transportation Programs (2006) 48 pp., $31.00 66 Fixed-Route Transit Ridership Forecasting and Service Planning Methods (2006) 51 pp., $31.00 67 Bus Transit Service in Land Development Planning (2006) 62 pp., $32.00 68 Methods of Rider Communication (2006) 95 pp., $35.00 69 Web-Based Survey Techniques (2006) 104 pp., $35.00 70 Mobile Data Terminals (2007) 150 pp., $47.00 71 Paratransit Manager's Skills, Qualifications, and Needs (2007) 52 pp., $36.00 72 Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet (2007) 61 pp., $38.00 73 AVL Systems for Bus Transit Update (2007) 104 pp., $50.00 74 Policies and Practices for Effectively and Efficiently Meeting ADA Paratransit Demand (2008) 54 pp., $40.00 75 Uses of Higher Capacity Buses in Transit Service (2008) 72 pp., $45.00 76 Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services (2008) 48 pp., $40.00 77 Passenger Counting Systems (2008) 73 pp., $45.00 78 Transit Systems in College and University Communities (2008) 88 pp., $47.00 79 Light Rail Vehicle Collisions with Vehicles at Signalized Intersections (2008) 40 pp., $37.00 80 Transit Security Update (2008) 141 pp., $57.00 81 Preventive Maintenance Intervals for Transit Buses (2010) 71 pp., $47.00 82 Transit Fare Arrangements for Public Employees (2010) 81 pp., $49.00 83 Bus and Rail Transit Preferential Treatments in Mixed Traffic (2010) 202 pp., $68.00 84 Current Practices in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Savings from Transit (2010) 77 pp. $49.00 85 Effective Use of Citizen Advisory Committees for Transit Planning and Operations (2010) 63 pp., $43.00 86 Relationships Between Streetcars and the Built Environment (2010) 52 pp., $42.00 43 Track Maintenance Costs on Rail Transit Properties (2008) (web-only doc) RRD32 Accessibility of Automated Fare Vending and Collection for Customers with Disabilities (1998) 5

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Table 4 INDEX TO TCRP SYNTHESIS AND STUDIES Absenteeism 33, 52 Route Evaluation Standards 10 Accidents Service Line and Cleaning 12 Light Rail 79 Shoulders 64 Advertising Small Buses 41 Buses/Trains, on 32, 51 Stops, Customer Information at 17, 37, 48 Stations/Stops 32, 51 Suburb-to-Suburb Service 14 Websites 43 System-Specific Spare Ratios 11 Advisory Committees 85 Traffic Operations 49 Alternative Fuels 1 Waste Control at Maintenance Facilities 9 Safe Operating Procedures, Buses 1 Bus Field Supervisors Automated Onboard Systems, Vehicle Health 81 Changing Roles and Practices 16 Automated Vehicle Location (AVL) Systems 24, 34, Bus Garages (see Bus Maintenance Facilities) 48, 53, 55, 73, 77 Bus Maintenance Facilities Automatic Passenger Counters (APC) 29, 66, 73, 77 Cleaning 12 Automatic Vehicle Monitoring 24, 34, 48, 53, 55, 73 Regulations on Design and Retrofit of 7 Waste Control 9 Bicycles Bus Route Evaluation Standards 10, 14 Integration with Buses 4, 62 Bus Stops Integration with Ferries 4, 62 Information at 17, 37, 48 Integration with Rail 4, 62 Locations 53 Biodiesel 72 Safety Design 18 Buff Load (see Compression Requirements) Signs 17, 37 Built Environment 86 Buses Claims (see Liability) Alternative Fuels 1 Codes (see Regulations, Standards) Compressed Natural Gas 1 College and University Campuses 39, 78 Ethanol 1 Communications Liquefied Natural Gas 1 Riders 68 Liquefied Petroleum Gas 1 Commuter Benefits, 82 Methanol 1 Compression Requirements Automated Vehicle Location Systems 24, 34, 48, Light Rail Vehicles 25 53, 55 Computer-Aided Dispatch 73 Bicycle, Integration with 4, 62 Congestion Mitigation 84 Biodiesel 72 Construction Contract Claims 28 Bypass Lanes 83 Contracts Cleaning 12 Advertising 32, 51 College and University Campuses 39, 78 Disputes and Resolution 28 Driver Availability 33, 40, 52 Information Technology Services 35 Electronic Equipment 44 Maintenance 54 Fare Collection 26 Paratransit Services 31, 71 Field Supervisors 16 Customer Service 43, 45 Fuel and Fluid Storage 7 Automatic Vehicle Location 73 Higher Capacity 75 Awareness 43, 45, 48, 49, 68 Low-Floor 2 Bicycles on Transit 62 Maintenance 54, 81 Complaint Resolution 38 Maintenance Facilities 7, 9, 12 Computer-Aided Scheduling and Dispatch 57 Natural Gas 58 Employee Fare Programs 82 Occupant Safety 18, 38, 50, 58 Geographic Information Systems 55 Passenger Transfer 19 Information at Bus Stops 17, 48 Rail, Integration with 83 Management Role 16, 47 Rapid Transit 75, 83 Passengers with Disabilities 30, 31, 37, 50, 53, Retrofitting 8 60, 74 6

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Table 4 (Continued ) Service Line and Cleaning 12 Funding Allocation Surveys 63, 69 Bicycle Services 62 Transfers 19 Maintenance 53 Medicaid Transportation Programs 65 Design Performance-Based 56 Bicycle Storage and Transport 62 Role of Performance-Based Measures 6 Bus Spare Bus Ratios, System-Specific 11 Clean Air Regulations, to Meet 8 Spare Rail Vehicle Ratios 15 Low-Floor Transit Buses 2 Systems Costs 48 Safety 18, 50, 58 Under ISTEA and TEA-21 42 Bus Maintenance Facilities 7 Funding, Flexible 42 Bus Stops 18 Engines 7, 8 Geographic Information Systems 55 Regulatory, Impacts on 7, 8 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Small Buses 41 Bus 24, 53, 73, 78 Streetcar Systems 86 Greenhouse Gas Emissions 84 Surveillance Technology 38 Survey Questionnaires 63, 69 Incentive Programs Tunnels 23 Employee 3, 33, 52, 82 Websites 43 Information Technology (IT) 5, 35, 43, 57 Dispatch 57 Automatic Vehicle Location 73 Bus 53, 60, Geographic Information Systems 55 Diversity Global Positioning Systems 70 Training 46 Supervisors, Impact on 16 Driver Web-Based Surveys 69 Health and Wellness 52 Inspection Hiring 40 Performance Evaluation 40 Bus Maintenance 81 Retention 40 Rail Tunnels and Underground Structures 23 Training 40, 44, 45, 49, 57 Integrated Service 76 Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Electronic Surveillance 38 Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) 35 Emergency Procedures Automated Vehicle Location Systems 24, 34, 48, Bus 58 53, 55, 73, 77 Emissions, Greenhouse Gas 84 Automated Vehicle Monitoring (AVM) 24, 34, 48, Employee Assistance Programs 16, 52, 82 53, 55, 73 Environment, The Automatic Passenger Counters 29, 34, 77 Clean Air Act 1, 7, 8 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) 24, 53 Emissions, Biodiesel 72 Transfer Automation 19 Greenhouse Gas Emissions 84 Mobile Data Terminals 70 Waste Control 9 Internet 43 Fare Collection Liability Bus 26, 34 Construction Contract Claims 28 Electronic Registering Fareboxes (ERFs) 29 Fraudulent Third Party Claims 36 Unlimited Access Systems 39 Institutional 49 Ferries Risk Management 13 Bicycles, Integration with 4, 62 Light Rail Vehicles (LRV) Fleet Management 15, 24, 35 Compression Requirements 25 Flexible Transit Service 53 Operations 79 Fixed-Route Transit 66, 74 System-Specific Spare Ratios 15 Fraudulent Claims 36 Light Rail Transit 61, 79, 83 Fuel Systems 72 Low-Floor Buses 2 7

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Table 4 (Continued ) Maintenance Rail Bus Maintenance Facilities 7, 9 Bicycle, Integration with 4, 62 Light Rail Transit 61, 43 (web-only) Light Rail Vehicle Compression Requirements 25 Line and Cleaning Functions 12 Passenger Transfers 19 Monitoring Performance 22, 44 Security 21 Preventive 81 Station Area Development 20 Productivity 53, 54 Streetcars 86 Management 44, 47, 59, 71 Suburb-to-Suburb Service 14 Management Information Systems (see Information System-Specific Spare Ratios 15 Technology) Tunnel and Underground Structures 23 Marketing Recruitment Bicycles on Transit 62 Bus Drivers 16, 33, 40 Mobile Data Terminals 70 Management 47 Monitoring Maintenance Performance 22, 54 Security Personnel 21 Supervisors 16 Non-Emergency Medical Transportation 65 Regulations Air Quality 1, 7, 8, 84 Paratransit Services 30, 31, 60, 65, 71, 74, 76 Alternative Fuel Buses 1, 72 Parking and Storage Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 2, 7, 16, 17, Bicycles 62 24, 30, 31, 37, 50, 53, 60, 65, 74, 76 Partnerships, 65 Buses on Shoulders 64 Passengers Drugs and Alcohol 16 Comfort 12 EPA 7 Communicating with 37, 68 Family Leave Medical Act 33 Ridership Counts 29, 34 Leave Policies 33 Safety 18, 21, 50, 58, 80 Local and State 7 Satisfaction 45, 64, 69 Occupational Safety and Health Administration Transfer Systems 19 Performance-Based Measures 7, 52 Funding Allocation 56 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 9 Diversity Training 46 Retrofitting 7, 8 Role in Funding Allocation 6 Suburb-to-Suburb Service 14 Performance Evaluation Waste Management 9 Bus Operators 40 Retrofitting Real-Time Bus Arrival Information Systems 43, 48 Bus 8, 49 Planning Bus Maintenance Facilities 7 Advisory Committees 85 Engine 7, 8 Strategic 59 Regulatory, Impacts on 7 Policy Development Revenues No-Show and Late Cancellation 60 Advertising 51 Greenhouse Gas Emissions 84 Ridership 63 Policy Procedures Forecasting 66 Rail Tunnel and Underground Structures Risk Management Inspection 23 Medium Agencies 13 Safe Operation for Alternative Fuel Buses 1 Small Agencies 13 Productivity Employee 3, 16, 22, 33, 54 Safety Transit System 54, 56, 60 Alternative Fuel Bus Operation 1 Public Involvement in Transit Planning 85 Bus Occupant 18, 38, 50, 64 Bus Route Evaluation 10 Quality Assurance Communications 68 Bus Maintenance 81 Light Rail Vehicle Compression Resistance 25 Queue Jump/Bypass Lanes 83 Traffic Operations 49 8

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Table 4 (Continued ) Scheduling Streetcars 86 Adherence 49 Suburb-to-Suburb Commuting 14 Automatic Vehicle Location Systems 24, 48, 53, Supervisors 55, 73 Bus Field 16 Bus Driver Availability 33 Relations with Drivers 33 Bus Route Evaluation 10 Surveys Bus Stop Information 17, 48 On-Line and Intercept 63 Bus Transfers 19 Web-Based 69 Computer-Aided 57 Demand-Responsive 53, 57 Terrorism 27, 80 Flexible Route 53 Maintenance, Bus 81 Tort Claims 36 Paratransit 74, 76 Track Maintenance 43 (web-only) Point Deviation 53 Training Ridership Data Collection 29, 34, 63 Bus Drivers 18, 30, 40 Small Buses 41 Diversity Training 46 Suburb-to-Suburb 14 Information Technology 35, 44 Security Management, Paratransit 71 Automatic Vehicle Location 73 Riders, Paratransit 74 Bus Drivers, for 33 Supervisors 16 Crime Prevention 21, 38, 80 Technicians 81 Passenger Security Inspections 80 Transfers 19 Technology Systems 35, 38 Transit-Focused Development 20 Terrorism 27, 80 Transit Signal Priority 83 Violence Reduction 21 Transitways 83 Service Transportation Demand Management 39 Planning 66 Tunnels 23 Quality 15, 45, 53, 57 Small Buses 41 Underground Structures 23 Service Line and Cleaning 12 Unions 54 Spare Ratios U-Pass 78 System-Specific Buses 11 System-Specific Rail Vehicles 15 Standards Violence (see Security) Alternative Fuels 1 Bus Route Evaluation 10, 14 Waste Control Maintenance 54 Bus Maintenance Facilities 9 9

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Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ISBN 978-0-309-14324-0 90000 Subscriber Categories: Public Transportation Operations and Traffic Management Design Planning and Forecasting Vehicles and Equipment Maintenance and Preservation Energy Environment Society Finance 9 780309 143240 These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP.