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January 2011 NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials and the Federal Highway Administration Senior Program Officer: Nanda Srinivasan nsrinivasan@nas.edu Research Results Digest 350 CONTINUING PROJECT TO SYNTHESIZE INFORMATION ON HIGHWAY PROBLEMS A staff digest of the progress and status of NCHRP Project 20-05, "Synthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems," for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. Individual studies for the project are managed by Jon M. Williams, Director, Synthesis Studies, Donna L. Vlasak, Senior Program Officer, Gail R. Staba, Senior Program Officer, and Jo Allen Gause, Senior Program Officer, serving under the Studies and Special Programs Division of the Transportation Research Board, Stephen R. Godwin, Director. INTRODUCTION Suggestions for synthesis topics may be Highway administrators, engineers, and sent to the NCHRP Manager at any time researchers often face problems for which by contacting the Cooperative Research information already exists, either in docu- Programs Staff, Transportation Research mented form or as undocumented experi- Board, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, ence and practice. This information may be D.C., 20001. You can also submit your fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As recommendation at: http://www.trb.org/ a consequence, full knowledge of what SynthesisPrograms/Public/Synthesis has been learned about a problem may not Program.aspx "Suggest an ACRP, be brought to bear on its solution. Costly NCHRP, or TCRP Synthesis Topic." research findings may go unused, valuable Topics suggested must be accompanied experience may be overlooked, and due by a brief (one or two paragraphs) scope consideration may not be given to recom- statement, including a discussion of the mended practices for solving or alleviating problem. A title (preferably 10 words or the problem. less) and the name and affiliation of the There is information on nearly every submitter are also necessary. Identifica- subject of concern to highway administra- tion of information sources is appreciated. tors and engineers. Much of it derives from A committee meets once each year, usu- research or from the work of practitioners ally in the late spring, to make the final faced with problems in their day-to-day selections. To be considered at the next work. To provide a systematic means for annual meeting, all submissions should assembling and evaluating such useful be received by February 18, 2011. If a topic information and making it available to the is not selected, it must be resubmitted the entire highway community, the American following year to be considered. Association of State Highway and Trans- portation Officials--through the mecha- nism of the National Cooperative Highway Interested in writing a synthesis? For de- Research Program--authorized the Trans- tails contact see the Synthesis homepage portation Research Board to undertake (address above) under "New Topics." a continuing study. This study, NCHRP

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Project 20-05, "Synthesis of Information Related to the useful information that is acquired; and (6) to Highway Problems," searches out and synthesizes disseminate the synthesis information to all who useful knowledge from all available sources and might benefit from it. prepares concise, documented reports on specific Each synthesis is an immediately useful docu- topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ment that records practices that were acceptable NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. New knowledge can be expected to be added to that which is now at hand THE SYNTHESIS PROJECT and eventually the synthesis may need to be updated This synthesis series reports on current knowledge or redone. The readers and users of the syntheses and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed are in the best position to know when this has directions usually found in handbooks or design occurred. Whenever you believe that a synthesis manuals. Each report in the series provides a com- should be updated, it would be appreciated if you pendium of the best knowledge available on those would contact TRB and propose a synthesis update measures found to be most successful in resolving by contacting the NCHRP Manager, Transportation specific problems. Research Board, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive D.C. 20001. manner and to ensure inclusion of significant knowl- edge, TRB employs a consultant to gather and analyze available information from numerous sources, includ- Studies in Progress and Planned for 2011 ing state departments of transportation. A panel of ex- Work is currently under way on the topics listed perts in the subject area is established to guide the con- in Table 1. Topics selected for the current program sultants in organizing and evaluating the data collected are listed in Table 2. Questions on these topics should on each topic and to review the synthesis report. be addressed to the project study managers, Jon For each topic the project objectives are (1) to M. Williams, by e-mail at jwilliams@nas.edu, or by locate and assemble documented information; (2) to phone at 202-334-3245, Donna L. Vlasak, by e-mail learn what practice has been used for solving or al- at dvlasak@nas.edu, or by phone at 202-334-2974, leviating the problems; (3) to identify all ongoing re- Gail R. Staba, by e-mail at gstaba@nas.edu, or by search; (4) to learn what problems remain largely phone at 202-334-2442, or Jo Allen Gause, by e-mail unsolved; (5) to organize, evaluate, and document at jgause@nas.edu, or by phone at 202-334-3826. Table 1 TOPICS BEING STUDIED No. Title No. Title 39-11 Performance of Thin Polymer Overlays 41-04 Sustainable Pavement Maintenance Practices for Bridge Decks 41-05 Design Fires in Road Tunnels 40-01 Recycled Materials and Byproducts in 41-06 Accelerating Implementation of Transportation Highway Applications Research Results 40-07 Trade-off Considerations in 41-07 Operational and Institutional Agreements Highway Geometric Design That Facilitate Regional Traffic Signal 40-13 Recycling and Reclamation of Operating Programs Asphalt Pavements Using In-Place 41-08 Implementing Race-Neutral Measures as State Methods Disadvantage Business Enterprise Programs 41-01 Geometric Design Practices for Resurfacing, 41-09 Techniques for Highway Construction Restoration, and Rehabilitation Projects in Congested Urban Areas 41-02 Effective Delivery of Small-Scale Federal 41-10 Developing Production Pile Driving Criteria Aid Projects from Test Pile Data 41-03 Engineering Economic Analysis Practices 41-11 Transportation Improvement Program Revision for Highway Investment Process 2

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Table 2 SYNTHESIS TOPICS SELECTED FOR THE FY 2010 PROGRAM No. Title No. Title 42-01 Practices and Guidelines for the 42-06 Performance-based Highway Maintenance Incorporation and Use of Geotechnical and Operations Management Information in Design-Build Projects 42-07 Waterproofing Membranes for 42-02 The Use and Application of the Census Concrete Bridge Decks Bureau's Public Use Microdata Sample 42-08 Significant Findings from Full-Scale (PUMS) by States and Metropolitan Accelerated Advanced Pavement Testing Planning Organizations 42-09 Cost-Effective and Sustainable Road Slope 42-03 Practice and Procedures for Site-Specific Stabilization and Erosion Control Evaluation of Earthquake Ground Motions 42-10 Extent of Highway Capacity Manual 42-04 Recent Geometric Design Research for Use in Planning Improved Safety, Operations, and 42-11 Local Policies and Practices That Support Maintenance Safe Pedestrian Environments 42-05 Long-term Performance of Mechanically 42-12 Practices to Manage Traffic Sign Retro- Stabilized Earth (MSE) Walls reflectivity Selection of Topics The topic should address a problem that is widespread enough to generate broad interest NCHRP Project Committee SP20-05 meets each in the synthesis. year to select topics for study using funds from the The topic should be timely and critical with upcoming fiscal year. The membership of this com- respect to safety, economic, or social impact. mittee is given in Table 3. Current funding allows for The topic is appropriate if current practice is initiation of about 12 syntheses per year. These, plus nonuniform or inconsistent from agency to some alternate topics, are selected by the committee agency, or if the validity of some practices at its annual project meeting. appears to be questionable. The following factors are considered in the selec- The quality and quantity of useful available tion process for synthesis topics: information should indicate a need to organize Table 3 NCHRP PROJECT COMMITTEE SP20-5 Chairman Catherine Nelson Oregon Department of Transportation Kathleen S. Ames Ananth Prasad Michael Baker, Jr., Inc., Springfield, Illinois Florida Department of Transportation Stuart D. Anderson Robert L. Sack Texas A&M University New York State Department of Transportation Cynthia J. Burbank Francine Shaw-Whitson PB Americas, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia Federal Highway Administration Lisa Freese Mary Lynn Tischer Scott County (MN) Public Works Division Federal Highway Administration Malcolm T. Kerley Larry Velasquez Virginia Department of Transportation QUALCON, Inc., Santa Fe, New Mexico Richard D. Land California Department of Transportation Liaisons James W. March Jack Jernigan Federal Highway Administration (retired) Federal Highway Administration John M. Mason, Jr. Stephen F. Maher Auburn University Transportation Research Board 3

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and compress that which has already been publications (http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_browse. learned and written on the topic. asp?id=5 "Cooperative Research Programs"). The topic should not be one where ongoing research or other activities in progress might Index of Topic Subjects be expected to render the synthesis obsolete shortly after completion. Table 5 is an index to published syntheses, un- published studies, and digests and topics in production. Each year many more topics are suggested for the committee's consideration than can be programmed Conduct of the Studies for study in Project 20-05. Nevertheless, the continued success of this project depends on a constant supply Following the project committee's selection of of worthy synthesis topics. The interest of those who topics, studies are initiated in the order of priority as- have recommended topics is sincerely appreciated, signed by the committee. A panel consisting of prac- and they are urged to continue. Candidate topics are titioners and researchers is formed for each topic. At suggested by members of the committee and by a its first meeting, this topic panel thoroughly dis- variety of other sources, including state department of cusses the topic, refines the scope, suggests sources transportation personnel; FHWA, AASHTO, and TRB of information, and identifies and discusses poten- committees; and other practitioners and researchers. tial topic consultants. Following this meeting, a consultant is hired to Available Publications gather information on the topic, synthesize it, and draft a report. Typically, the agreement covers a pe- The Syntheses of Highway Practice that have been completed under this project are listed in riod of 1215 months. Information gathering and Table 4. Eight Research Results Digests on topics preparation of the first draft of the synthesis report studied under the project are also listed. In addition, takes about 8 months. This draft is reviewed by the two unpublished reports are available. The unpub- topic panel with the consultant, often at the second lished reports are for information only, as they have panel meeting. A revised draft is then prepared by not undergone the full review process of a published the consultant. Subsequent drafts and meetings are study. Copies of these Syntheses, Digests, and unpub- scheduled, if needed, although this rarely occurs. lished reports can be obtained from the publications After the staff is substantially satisfied with the office, Transportation Research Board, 500 Fifth report, a final draft is sent to members of the topic Street, NW, Washington D.C. 20001; by calling panel for their last chance to review the report and (202) 334-3213; and through the Internet at http:// then the NCHRP Project Committee SP20-05 for www.trb.org/bookstore. All reports from No. 295 on final approval. The report is subsequently published (and some selected others) are available as online as an NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice. Table 4 COMPLETED SYNTHESES No. Title, Pages, Price No. Title, Pages, Price 1. Traffic Control for Freeway Maintenance 8. Construction of Embankments (1971) 38 pp. (1969) 47 pp., $2.20 (microfiche)* 2. Bridge Approach Design and Construction 9. Pavement Rehabilitation--Materials and Practices (1969) 30 pp. (microfiche)* Techniques (1972) 41 pp. (out of print) 3. Traffic-Safe and Hydraulically Efficient 10. Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Mainte- Drainage Practice (1969) 38 pp. (microfiche)* nance and Equipment Personnel (1972) 35 pp. 4. Concrete Bridge Deck Durability (1970) (microfiche)* 28 pp. (microfiche)* (supplemented by 11. Development of Management Capability Synthesis 57) (1972) 50 pp. (out of print) 5. Scour at Bridge Waterways (1970) 37 pp. 12. Telecommunications Systems for Highway (microfiche)* Administration and Operations (1972) 39 pp., 6. Principles of Project Scheduling and $2.80 (superseded by Synthesis 165) Monitoring (1970) 43 pp. (microfiche)* 13. Radio Spectrum Frequency Management 7. Motorist Aid Systems (1971) 28 pp., $2.40 (1972) 32 pp., $2.80 4

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Table 4 (Continued ) No. Title, Pages, Price No. Title, Pages, Price 14. Skid Resistance (1972) 66 pp. (microfiche)* 39. Transportation Requirements for the 15. Statewide Transportation Planning--Needs and Handicapped, Elderly, and Economically Requirements (1973) 41 pp. (microfiche)* Disadvantaged (1976) 54 pp. (out of print) (superseded by Synthesis 95) 40. Staffing and Management for Social, Economic, 16. Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement and Environmental Impact Assessments (1977) (1973) 23 pp., $2.80 43 pp., $4.00 17. Pavement Traffic Marking--Materials and 41. Bridge Bearings (1977) 62 pp. (microfiche)* Application Affecting Serviceability (1973) 42. Design of Pile Foundations (1977) 68 pp., $4.80 44 pp., $3.60 (superseded by Synthesis 138) 43. Energy Effects, Efficiencies, and Prospects for 18. Erosion Control on Highway Construction Various Modes of Transportation (1977) 57 (1973) 52 pp. (microfiche)* pp., $4.80 (supplemented by Synthesis 121) 19. Design, Construction, and Maintenance of PCC 44. Consolidation of Concrete for Pavements, Bridge Pavement Joints (1973) 40 pp. (out of print) Decks, and Overlays (1977) 61 pp., $4.80 20. Rest Areas (1973) 38 pp., $3.60 45. Rapid-Setting Materials for Patching of Concrete 21. Highway Location Reference Methods (1974) (1977) 13 pp. (out of print) 30 pp., $3.20 46. Recording and Reporting Methods for Highway 22. Maintenance Management of Traffic Signal Maintenance Expenditures (1977) 35 pp., $3.60 Equipment and Systems (1974) 41 pp. 47. Effect of Weather on Highway Construction (microfiche)* (superseded by Synthesis 114) (1978) 29 pp., $3.20 23. Getting Research Findings into Practice (1974) 48. Priority Programming and Project Selection 24 pp., $3.20 (1978) 31 pp. (out of print) 24. Minimizing Deicing Chemical Use (1974) 49. Open-Graded Friction Courses for Highways 58 pp. (microfiche)* (1978) 50 pp., $4.00 25. Reconditioning High-Volume Freeways in 50. Durability of Drainage Pipe (1978) 37 pp. Urban Areas (1974) 56 pp., $4.00 (microfiche)* 26. Roadway Design in Seasonal Frost Areas 51. Construction Contract Staffing (1978) 62 pp., (1975) 104 pp. (microfiche)* $6.00 27. PCC Pavements for Low-Volume Roads and 52. Management and Selection Systems for City Streets (1975) 31 pp. (microfiche)* Highway Maintenance Equipment (1978) 28. Partial-Lane Pavement Widening (1975) 17 pp., $4.40 30 pp., $3.20 53. Precast Concrete Elements for Transportation 29. Treatment of Soft Foundations for Embankments Facilities (1978) 48 pp., $5.60 (1975) 25 pp., $3.20 (supplemented by 54. Recycling Materials for Highways (1978) Synthesis 147) 53 pp. (microfiche)* 30. Bituminous Emulsions for Highway Pavements 55. Storage and Retrieval Systems for Highway (1975) 76 pp. (microfiche)* and Transportation Data (1978) 30 pp., $4.80 31. Highway Tunnel Operations (1975) 29 pp., $3.20 56. Joint Related Distress in PCC Pavement-- 32. Effects of Studded Tires (1975) 46 pp., $4.00 Cause, Prevention, and Rehabilitation (1979) 33. Acquisition and Use of Geotechnical Information 36 pp., $5.20 (1976) 40 pp., $4.00 57. Durability of Concrete Bridge Decks (1979) 34. Policies for Accommodation of Utilities on 61 pp. (microfiche)* (supplements Synthesis 4) Highway Rights of Way (1976) 22 pp. 58. Consequences of Deferred Maintenance (1979) (microfiche)* 24 pp., $4.40 35. Design and Control of Freeway Off-Ramp 59. Relationship of Asphalt Cement Properties to Terminals (1976) 61 pp., $4.40 Pavement Durability (1979) 43 pp., $5.60 36. Instrumentation and Equipment for Testing 60. Failure and Repair of Continuously Reinforced Highway Materials, Products, and Performance Concrete Pavement (1979) 42 pp., $5.60 (1976) 70 pp., $4.80 61. Changeable Message Signs (1979) 37 pp., $5.60 37. Lime-Fly Ash-Stabilized Bases and Subbases 62. Potential State Resources for Financing (1976) 66 pp. (microfiche)* Transportation Programs (1979) 34 pp., $5.20 38. Statistically Oriented End-Result Specifications 63. Design and Use of Highway Shoulders (1979) (1976) 40 pp., $4.00 26 pp., $4.80 5

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Table 4 (Continued ) No. Title, Pages, Price No. Title, Pages, Price 64. Bituminous Patching Mixtures (1979) 26 pp., 91. Highway Accident Analysis Systems (1982) $4.80 69 pp., $7.60 65. Quality Assurance (1979) 42 pp., $5.60 92. Minimizing Reflection Cracking of Pavement 66. Glare Screen Guidelines (1979) 17 pp., $4.40 Overlays (1982) 38 pp., $6.80 67. Bridge Drainage Systems (1979) 44 pp., $5.60 93. Coordination of Transportation System 68. Motor Vehicle Size and Weight Regulation, Management and Land Use Management Enforcement, and Permit Operations (1980) (1982) 38 pp., $6.80 45 pp., $6.00 94. Photologging (1982) 38 pp., $6.80 69. Bus Route and Schedule Planning Guidelines 95. Statewide Transportation Planning (1982) (1980) 99 pp., $8.00 54 pp., $7.20 (supersedes Synthesis 15) 70. Design of Sedimentation Basins (1980) 53 pp., 96. Pavement Subsurface Drainage Systems (1982) $6.80 38 pp., $6.80 71. Direction Finding from Arterials to Destinations 97. Transit Ownership/Operation Options for Small (1980) 50 pp., $6.40 Urban and Rural Areas (1982) 28 pp., $6.40 72. Transportation Needs Studies and Financial 98. Resealing Joints and Cracks in Rigid and Constraints (1980) 54 pp., $6.40 Flexible Pavements (1982) 62 pp., $7.20 73. Alternative Work Schedules: Impacts on 99. Resurfacing with Portland Cement Concrete Transportation (1980) 54 pp., $6.80 (1982) 90 pp., $8.40 74. State Transit-Management Assistance to Local 100. Managing State Highway Finance (1982) Communities (1980) 34 pp., $6.00 23 pp., $6.40 75. Transit Boards--Composition, Roles, and 101. Historic Bridges--Criteria for Decision Procedures (1981) 24 pp., $6.20 Making (1983) 77 pp., $8.00 76. Collection and Use of Pavement Condition 102. Material Certification and Material-Certification Data (1981) 74 pp., $8.00 Effectiveness (1983) 17 pp., $6.00 77. Evaluation of Pavement Maintenance Strategies 103. Risk Assessment Processes for Hazardous (1981) 56 pp., $7.40 Materials Transportation (1983) 26 pp., $6.40 78. Value Engineering in Preconstruction and 104. Criteria for Use of Asphalt Friction Surfaces Construction (1981) 23 pp., $6.40 (1983) 41 pp., $6.80 79. Contract Time Determination (1981) 45 pp., 105. Construction Contract Claims: Causes and Methods of Settlement (1983) 58 pp., $7.20 $7.20 106. Practical Guidelines for Minimizing Tort 80. Formulating and Justifying Highway Liability (1983) 40 pp., $6.80 Maintenance Budgets (1981) 49 pp., $7.20 107. Shallow Foundations for Highway Structures 81. Experiences in Transportation System (1983) 38 pp., $6.80 Management (1981) 88 pp., $8.40 108. Bridge Weight-Limit Posting Practices (1984) 82. Criteria for Evaluation of Truck Weight 30 pp., $6.40 Enforcement Programs (1981) 74 pp., $7.20 109. Highway Uses of Epoxy with Concrete (1984) 83. Bus Transit Accessibility for the Handicapped 68 pp., $8.80 in Urban Areas (1981) 73 pp., $7.60 110. Maintenance Management Systems (1984) 84. Evaluation Criteria and Priority Setting for 49 pp., $8.00 State Highway Programs (1981) 32 pp., $6.40 111. Distribution of Wheel Loads on Highway 85. Energy Involved in Construction Materials and Bridges (1984) 22 pp., $7.20 Procedures (1981) 34 pp., $6.40 112. Cost Effectiveness of Hot-Dip Galvanizing for 86. Effects of Traffic-lnduced Vibrations on Bridge Exposed Steel (1984) 28 pp., $7.20 Deck Repairs (1981) 40 pp., $6.80 113. Administration of Research, Development, and 87. Highway Noise Barriers (1981) 81 pp., $7.20 Implementation Activities in Highway Agencies 88. Underwater Inspection and Repair of Bridge (1984) 49 pp., $8.00 Substructures (1981) 77 pp., $7.60 114. Management of Traffic Signal Maintenance 89. Geotechnical Instrumentation for Monitoring (1984) 134 pp., $10.80 (supersedes Field Performance (1982) 46 pp., $6.80 Synthesis 22) 90. New Product Evaluation Procedures (1982) 115. Reducing Construction Conflicts between 34 pp., $6.80 Highways and Utilities (1984) 73 pp., $8.80 6

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Table 4 (Continued ) No. Title, Pages, Price No. Title, Pages, Price 116. Asphalt Overlay Design Procedures (1984) 142. Methods of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for 66 pp., $8.40 Highway Projects (1988) 22 pp., $7.00 117. Toll Highway Financing (1984) 29 pp., $7.20 143. Uniformity Efforts in Oversize/Overweight 118. Detecting Defects and Deterioration in Permits (1988) 79 pp., $10.00 Highway Structures (1985) 52 pp., $8.00 144. Breaking/Cracking and Seating Concrete 119. Prefabricated Bridge Elements and Systems Pavements (1989) 39 pp., $8.00 (1985) 75 pp., $8.80 145. Staffing Considerations in Construction 120. Professional Resource Management and Engineering Management (1989) 42 pp., $8.00 Forecasting (1985) 15 pp., $6.80 146. Use of Consultants for Construction Engineering 121. Energy Conservation in Transportation (1985) and Inspection (1989) 64 pp., $9.00 25 pp., $7.20 (supplements Synthesis 43) 147. Treatment of Problem Foundations for Highway 122. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of Pavements (1985) Embankments (1989) 72 pp., $9.00 136 pp., $10.80 148. Indicators of Quality in Maintenance (1989) 123. Bridge Designs to Reduce and Facilitate 114 pp., $11.00 Maintenance and Repair (1985) 65 pp., $8.40 149. Partnerships for Innovation: Private Sector 124. Use of Weigh-in-Motion Systems for Data Contributions to Innovation in the Highway Collection and Enforcement (1986) 34 pp., $7.60 Industry (1989) 45 pp., $8.00 125. Maintenance Activities Accomplished by 150. Technology Transfer in Selected Highway Contract (1986) 42 pp., $8.00 Agencies (1989) 38 pp., $8.00 126. Equipment for Obtaining Pavement Condition 151. Process for Recapitalizing Highway Transporta- and Traffic Loading Data (1986) 118 pp., $11.20 tion Systems (1989) 43 pp., $8.00 127. Use of Fly Ash in Concrete (1986) 66 pp., $8.40 152. Compaction of Asphalt Pavement (1989) 128. Methods for Identifying Hazardous Highway 42 pp., $8.00 Elements (1986) 80 pp. (microfiche)* 153. Evolution and Benefits of Preventive 129. Freezing and Thawing Resistance of High- Maintenance Strategies (1989) 69 pp., $9.00 Strength Concrete (1986) 31 pp., $7.60 154. Recycling Portland Cement Concrete Pavements 130. Traffic Data Collection and Analysis: Methods (1989) 46 pp., $8.00 and Procedures (1986) 58 pp., $8.40 155. Freeway Guide Sign Replacement: Policies and 131. Effects of Permit and Illegal Overloads on Criteria (1991) 37 pp., $8.00 Pavements (1987) 99 pp., $10.40 156. Freeway Incident Management (1990) 23 pp., 132. System-Wide Safety Improvements: An $7.00 Approach to Safety Consistency (1987) 20 pp., 157. Maintenance Management of Street and $6.80 Highway Signs (1990) 134 pp., $12.00 133. Integrated Highway Information Systems 158. Wet-Pavement Safety Programs (1990) 54 pp., (1987) 31 pp., $7.60 $8.00 134. D-Cracking of Concrete Pavements (1987) 159. Design and Construction of Bridge Approaches 34 pp., $7.60 (1990) 45 pp., $8.00 135. Pavement Management Practices (1987) 160. Cold-Recycled Bituminous Concrete Using 139 pp., $12.40 Bituminous Materials (1990) 105 pp., $11.00 136. Protective Coatings for Bridge Steel (1987) 161. Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Systems 107 pp., $11.00 (1990) 24 pp., $7.00 137. Negotiating and Contracting for Professional 162. Signing Policies, Procedures, Practices, and Engineering Services (1988) 75 pp., $9.60 Fees for Logo and Tourist-Oriented Directional 138. Pavement Markings: Materials and Application Signing (1990) 41 pp., $8.00 for Extended Service Life (1988) 45 pp., $8.00 163. Innovative Strategies for Upgrading Personnel (supersedes Synthesis 17) in State Transportation Departments (1990) 139. Pedestrians and Traffic Control Measures 35 pp., $7.00 (1988) 75 pp., $9.00 164. Measures to Curtail State Fuel Tax Evasion 140. Durability of Prestressed Concrete Highway (1990) 14 pp., $7.00 Structures (1988) 65 pp., $9.00 165. Transportation Telecommunications (1990) 141. Bridge Deck Joints (1989) 66 pp., $9.00 92 pp., $10.00 (supersedes Synthesis 12) 7

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Table 4 (Continued ) No. Title, Pages, Price No. Title, Pages, Price 166. Traffic Signal Control Equipment: State of the 191. Use of Rumble Strips to Enhance Safety (1993) Art (1990) 43 pp., $8.00 74 pp., $19.00 167. Measurements, Specifications, and Achievement 192. Accident Data Quality (1993) 53 pp., $12.00 of Smoothness for Pavement Construction 193. Hot In-Place Recycling of Asphalt Concrete (1990) 34 pp., $8.00 (1994) 69 pp., $16.00 168. Contract Management Systems (1990) 74 pp., 194. Electronic Toll and Traffic Management $10.00 (ETTM) Systems (1993) 64 pp., $15.00 169. Removing Concrete from Bridges (1991) 195. Use of Warranties in Road Construction (1994) 42 pp., $8.00 60 pp., $15.00 170. Managing Urban Freeway Maintenance (1990) 196. Highway Maintenance Procedures Dealing 32 pp., $7.00 with Hazardous Materials Incidents (1994) 171. Fabrics in Asphalt Overlays and Pavement 60 pp., $15.00 Maintenance (1991) 72 pp., $9.00 197. Corridor Preservation (1994) 43 pp., $11.00 172. Signal Timing Improvement Practices (1992) 198. Uses of Recycled Rubber Tires in Highways 88 pp., $11.00 (1994) 162 pp., $23.00 173. Short-Term Responsive Maintenance Systems 199. Recycling and Use of Waste Materials and (1991) 43 pp., $9.00 By-Products in Highway Construction (1994) 174. Stormwater Management for Transportation 84 pp., $20.00 Facilities (1993) 81 pp., $9.00 200. Underwater Bridge Maintenance and Repair 175. Moisture Damage in Asphalt Concrete (1991) (1994) 54 pp., $16.00 91 pp., $10.00 201. Multimodal Evaluation in Passenger Trans- 176. Bridge Paint: Removal, Containment, and portation (1994) 84 pp., $19.00 Disposal (1992) 60 pp., $9.00 202. Severity Indices for Roadside Features (1994) 177. Freeway Corridor Management (1992) 64 pp., 54 pp., $12.00 $9.00 203. Current Practices in Determining Pavement 178. Truck Escape Ramps (1992) 56 pp., $9.00 Condition (1994) 57 pp., $16.00 179. Latex-Modified Concretes and Mortars (1992) 204. Portland Cement Concrete Resurfacing (1994) 58 pp., $9.00 67 pp., $15.00 180. Performance Characteristics of Open-Graded 205. Performance and Operational Experience of Friction Courses (1992) 44 pp., $8.00 Crash Cushions (1994) 87 pp., $20.00 (supplements Synthesis 49) 206. Highway Tort Liability Management Programs 181. In-Service Experience with Traffic Noise (1994) 40 pp., $11.00 Barriers (1992) 61 pp., $9.00 207. Managing Roadway Snow and Ice Control 182. Performance and Operational Experience of Operations (1994) 56 pp., $15.00 Truck-Mounted Attenuators (1992) 54 pp., $9.00 208. Development and Implementation of Traffic 183. Knowledge Based Expert Systems in Control Plans for Highway Work Zones (1994) Transportation (1992) 52 pp., $9.00 37 pp., $11.00 184. Disposal of Roadside Litter Mixtures (1993) 209. Sealers for Portland Cement Concrete Highway 52 pp., $12.00 Facilities (1994) 85 pp., $19.00 185. Preferential Lane Treatments for High- 210. Road Pricing for Congestion Management: Occupancy Vehicles (1993) 80 pp., $10.00 A Survey of International Practice (1994) 186. Supplemental Advance Warnings (1993) 77 pp., $19.00 83 pp., $19.00 211. Design, Construction, and Maintenance of PCC 187. Rapid Test Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Pavement Joints (1995) 50 pp., $12.00 Portland Cement Concrete (1993) 47 pp., $10.00 212. Performance-Related Specifications for 188. Management Training and Development Highway Construction and Rehabilitation Programs (1993) 56 pp., $15.00 (1995) 48 pp., $14.00 189. State Highway Pavement Design Practices 213. Effective Use of Park-and-Ride Facilities (1993) 45 pp., $11.00 (1995) 45 pp., $11.00 190. Criteria for Qualifying Contractors for Bidding 214. Resolution of Disputes to Avoid Construction Purposes (1994) 40 pp., $11.00 Claims (1995) 39 pp., $13.00 8

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Table 4 (Continued ) No. Title, Pages, Price No. Title, Pages, Price 215. Determination of Contract Time for Highway 239. Pavement Subsurface Drainage Systems (1997) Construction Projects (1995) 43 pp., $11.00 44 pp., $15.00 216. Implementation of Technology From Abroad 240. Toll Plaza Design (1997) 117 pp., $25.00 (1995) 44 pp., $11.00 241. Truck Operating Characteristics (1997) 66 pp., 217. Consideration of the 15 Factors in the $19.00 Metropolitan Planning Process (1995) 55 pp., 242. Trenchless Installation of Conduits Beneath $14.00 Roadways (1997) 77 pp., $23.00 218. Mitigation of Nighttime Construction Noise, 243. Methods for Capital Programming and Project Vibrations, and Other Nuisances (1999) 93 pp., Scheduling (1997) 85 pp., $23.00 $30.00 244. Guardrail and Median Barrier Crashworthiness 219. Photographic Enforcement of Traffic Laws (1997) 160 pp., $27.00 (1995) 67 pp., $18.00 245. Traffic Signal Control Systems Maintenance 220. Waterproofing Membranes for Concrete Bridge Management Practices (1997) 63 pp., $19.00 Decks (1995) 76 pp., $21.00 246. Outsourcing of State Highway Facilities and 221. Effects of Highway Widening Improvements Services (1997) 69 pp., $20.00 on Urban and Suburban Areas (1996) 43 pp., 247. Stabilization of Existing Subgrades During $13.00 Interstate Pavement Reconstruction to Improve 222. Pavement Management Methodologies to Constructibility (1997) 75 pp., $20.00 Select Projects and Recommend Preservation 248. Evaluating and Measuring the Effectiveness of Treatments (1995) 96 pp., $22.00 Training (1997) 28 pp., $15.00 223. Cost-Effective Preventive Maintenance of 249. Methods of Increasing Live Load Capacity of Pavements (1996) 103 pp., $22.00 Bridges (1997) 66 pp., $21.00 224. Longitudinal Occupancy of Controlled Access 250. Highway-Rail Crossing Surfaces (1997) 56 pp., Right-of-Way by Utilities (1996) 30 pp., $13.00 $20.00 225. Left-Turn Treatments at Intersections (1996) 251. Lead-Based Paint Removal for Steel Highway 87 pp., $22.00 Bridges (1997) 115 pp., $26.00 226. Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils 252. Response of Small Urbanized Area MPOs to (1996) 88 pp., $22.00 ISTEA (1997) 35 pp., $15.00 227. Collecting and Managing Cost Data for Bridge 253. Dynamic Effects of Pile Installations on Management Systems (1996) 49 pp., $15.00 Adjacent Structures (1997) 86 pp., $24.00 228. Reduced Visibility on the Highway (1996) 51 254. Service Life of Drainage Pipe (1998) 39 pp., pp., $15.00 $15.00 229. Applications of 3D and 4D Visualization Tech- 255. GPR for Evaluating Subsurface Conditions nology in Transportation (1996) 73 pp., $19.00 for Transportation Facilities (1998) 37 pp., 230. Freight Transportation Planning Practices in $16.00 the Public Sector (1996) 47 pp., $15.00 256. Submittal of Bid Proposals in Electronic Format 231. Managing Contract Research Programs (1996) (1998) 26 pp., $15.00 92 pp., $23.00 257. Maintenance Issues and Alternate Corrosion 232. Variability in Highway Pavement Construction Protection Methods for Exposed Bridge Steel (1996) 38 pp., $14.00 (1998) 90 pp., $25.00 233. Land Development Regulations that Promote 258. Applications of GPS for Surveying and Other Access Management (1996) 45 pp., $14.00 Positioning Needs in Departments of Trans- 234. Settlement of Bridge Approaches (The Bump at portation (1998) 46 pp., $17.00 the End of the Bridge) (1997) 75 pp., $24.00 259. Management of Surface Transportation Systems 235. Application of Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement (1998) 26 pp., $15.00 Testing (1997) 110 pp., $23.00 260. Thin-Surfaced Pavements (1998) 112 pp., 236. Methods for Household Travel Surveys (1997) $26.00 57 pp., $15.00 261. Criteria for Highway Routing of Hazardous 237. Changeable Message Signs (1997) 57 pp., $19.00 Materials (1998) 38 pp., $16.00 238. Performance Measurement in State DOTs 262. Tolling Practices for Highway Facilities (1998) (1997) 69 pp., $20.00 54 pp., $23.00 9

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Table 4 (Continued ) No. Title, Pages, Price No. Title, Pages, Price 263. State DOT Management Techniques for 285. Maintenance of Highway Edgedrains (2000) Construction and Materials Acceptance (1998) 62 pp., $27.00 51 pp., $23.00 286. Multimodal Aspects of Statewide Transportation 264. Modern Roundabout Practice in the United Planning (2000) 58 pp., $27.00 States (1998) 73 pp., $23.00 (Available on the 287. Sleep Deprivation Countermeasures for Motorist Internet only) Safety (2000) 92 pp., $31.00 265. Managing Product Liability to Achieve Highway 288. Data Sharing and Data Partnerships for Innovations (1998) 63 pp., $25.00 Highways (2000) 31 pp., $22.00 266. Dynamic Impact Factors for Bridges (1998) 289. Corridor Management (2000) 58 pp., $27.00 60 pp., $25.00 290. Procedures for Assessing Economic Develop- 267. Transportation Development Process (1998) ment Impacts from Transportation Investments 48 pp., $24.00 (2000) 75 pp., $28.00 268. Relationships Between Pavement Surface 291. Evaluation of Pavement Friction Characteristics Texture and Highway Traffic Noise (1998) (2000) 66 pp., $28.00 85 pp., $29.00 292. Innovative Practices to Reduce Delivery Time 269. Road User and Mitigation Costs in Highway for Right-of-Way in Project Development Pavement Projects (1998) 47 pp., $24.00 (2000) 73 pp., $28.00 270. Transportation Management Center Functions 293. Reducing and Mitigating the Impacts of Lane (1998) 69 pp., $27.00 Occupancy During Construction and Mainte- 271. Traffic Signal Operations Near Highway-Rail nance (2000) 60 pp., $27.00 Grade Crossings (1999) 90 pp., $30.00 294. Configuration Management in Transportation 272. Best Management Practices for Environmental Management Systems (2001) 44 pp., $23.00 Issues Related to Highway Street Maintenance 295. Statistical Methods in Highway Safety Analysis (1999) 103 pp., $30.00 (2001) 75 pp., $29.00 273. Project Development Methodologies for 296. Impact of New Information/Communications Reconstruction of Urban Freeway and Technology on Transportation Agencies (2001) Expressways (1999) 45 pp., $22.00 57 pp., $28.00 274. Methods to Achieve Rut-Resistant Durable 297. Building Effective Relationships Between Central Cities and Regional, State, and Federal Pavements (1999) 61 pp., $26.00 Agencies (2001) 69 pp., $29.00 275. Historic Highway Bridge Preservation 298. Truck Trip Generation Data (2001) 81 pp., Practices (1999) 61 pp., $27.00 $32.00 276. Geotechnical Related Development and Imple- 299. Recent Geometric Design Research for mentation of Load and Resistance Factor Design Improved Safety and Operations (2001) (LRFD) Methods (1999) 69 pp., $27.00 134 pp., $40.00 277. Consultants for DOT Preconstruction 300. Performance Measures for Research, Develop- Engineering Work (1999) 116 pp., $31.00 ment, and Technology Programs (2001) 97 pp., 278. Measuring In Situ Mechanical Properties of $33.00 Pavement Subgrade Soils (1999) 73 pp., $27.00 301. Collecting, Processing, and Integrating GPS 279. Roadway Incident Diversion Practices (1999) Data into GIS (2002) 65 pp., $15.00 84 pp., $29.00 302. Mitigation of Ecological Impacts (2002) 280. Seven Keys to Building a Robust Research 100 pp., $17.00 Program (1999) 64 pp., $26.00 303. Assessment and Rehabilitation of Existing 281. Operational Impacts of Median Width on Culverts (2002) 74 pp., $15.00 Larger Vehicles (2000) 68 pp., $28.00 304. Driveway Regulation Practices (2002) 77 pp., 282. Project Management Information Systems $16.00 (2000) 37 pp., $22.00 305. Interaction Between Roadways and Wildlife 283. Fleet Management and Selection Systems for Ecology (2002) 78 pp., $16.00 Highway Maintenance Equipment (2000) 306. Long-Term Pavement Marking Practices 33 pp., $22.00 (2002) 154 pp., $19.00 284. Performance Survey on Open-Graded Friction 307. Systems Engineering Processes for Developing Course Mixes (2000) 38 pp., $22.00 Traffic Signal Systems (2003) 87 pp., $17.00 10

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Table 4 (Continued ) No. Title, Pages, Price No. Title, Pages, Price 308. Owner Controlled Insurance Programs (2002) 332. Access Management on Crossroads in the 133 pp., $19.00 Vicinity of Interchanges (2004) 82 pp., $17.00 309. Transportation Planning and Management for 333. Concrete Bridge Deck Performance (2004) Special Events (2003) 71 pp., $16.00 101 pp., $18.00 310. Impact of Red Light Camera Enforcement on 334. Automated Pavement Distress Collection Crash Experience (2003) 57 pp., $15.00 Techniques (2004) 84 pp., $17.00 311. Performance Measures of Operational 335. Pavement Management Applications Using Effectiveness for Highway Segments and Geographic Information Systems (2004) Systems (2003) 59 pp., $15.00 65 pp., $16.00 312. Facilitating Partnerships in Transportation 336. Road Safety Audits (2004) 127 pp., $18.00 Research (2003) 76 pp., $16.00 337. Cooperative Agreements for Corridor 313. State DOT Outsourcing and Private-Sector Management (2004) 70 pp., $16.00 Utilization (2003) 42 pp., $14.00 338. Thin and Ultra-Thin Whitetopping (2004) 314. Strategies for Managing Increasing Truck Traffic 87 pp., $18.00 (2003) 83 pp., $16.00 339. Centerline Rumble Strips on Rural Roads 315. Compensation for Contractor's Home Office (2004) 63 pp., $16.00 Overhead (2003) 47 pp., $15.00 340. Convertible Roadways and Lanes (2005) 316. Design Exception Practices (2003) 82 pp., $16.00 92 pp., $18.00 317. Dealing with Truck Parking Demands (2003) 341. Integrated Roadside Vegetation Management 37 pp., $14.00 (2005) 82 pp., $17.00 318. Safe and Quick Clearance of Traffic Incidents 342. Chip Seal Best Practices (2005) 111 pp., $18.00 (2003) 143 pp., $19.00 343. Management of Disadvantaged Business 319. Bridge Deck Joint Performance (2003) 46 pp., Enterprise Issues in Construction Contracting $15.00 (2005) 97 pp., $18.00 320. Integrating Freight Facilities and Operations 344. Winter Highway Operations (2005) 66 pp., with Community Goals (2003) 58 pp., $15.00 $17.00 321. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies 345. Steel Bridge Erection Practices (2005) 78 pp., (2003) 134 pp., $20.00 $17.00 322. Safety Management Systems (2003) 42 pp., 346. State Construction Quality Assurance Programs $14.00 (2005) 75 pp., $17.00 323. Recruiting and Retaining Individuals in Trans- 347. Managing Archaeological Investigations portation Agencies (2003) 59 pp., $15.00 (2005) 56 pp., $17.00 324. Prefabricated Bridge Elements and Systems to 348. Improving the Safety of Older Road Users Limit Traffic Disruption During Construction (2005) 103 pp., $19.00 (2004) 48 pp., $15.00 349. Developing Transportation Agency Leaders 325. Significant Findings from Full-Scale Accelerated (2005) 51 pp., $16.00 Pavement Testing (2004) 201 pp., $23.00 350. Crash Records Systems (2005) 35 pp., $16.00 326. Strategic Planning and Decision Making in 351. Access Rights (2005) 82 pp., $18.00 State Departments of Transportation (2004) 352. Value Engineering Applications in Transporta- 62 pp., $16.00 tion (2005) 125 pp., $20.00 327. Cost-Effective Practices for Off-System and 353. Inspection and Maintenance of Bridge Stay Local Interest Bridges (2004) 130 pp., $20.00 Cable Systems (2005) 75 pp., $17.00 328. State Product Evaluation Programs (2004) 354. Inspection and Maintenance of Bridges with 35 pp., $15.00 Fracture-Critical Details (2005) 75 pp., $27.00 329. Integrating Tourism and Recreation Travel with 355. Transportation and Technology Transfer: Transportation Planning and Project Delivery Successes, Challenges, and Needs (2005) (2004) 53 pp., $15.00 85 pp., $28.00 330. Public Benefits of Highway System Maintenance 356. Pavement Markings--Design and Typical and Operations (2004) 45 pp., $15.00 Layout Details (2006) 138 pp., $33.00 331. State Highway Program Letting Management 357. Use of Geophysics for Transportation Projects (2004) 47 pp., $15.00 (2006) 108 pp., $36.00 11

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Table 4 (Continued ) No. Title, Pages, Price No. Title, Pages, Price 358. Statewide Travel Forecasting Models (2006), 383. Changeable Message Signs During Non-Incident, 116 pp., $36.00 Non-Roadwork Periods (2008) 68 pp., $45.00 359. Bridge Rating Practices and Policies for 384. Forecasting Metropolitan Commercial and Overweight Vehicles (2006) 108 pp., $36.00 Freight Travel (2008) 130 pp., $54.00 360. Rock-Socketed Shafts for Highway Structure 385. Information Technology for Efficient Project Foundations (2006) 136 pp., $39.00 Delivery (2008) 74 pp., $45.00 361. Visualization for Project Development (2006) 386. High Speed Weigh-in-Motion System 82 pp., $34.00 Calibration Practices (2008) 55 pp., $40.00 362. Training Programs, Processes, Policies, and 387. LED Traffic Signal Monitoring, Maintenance, Practices (2006) 89 pp., $35.00 and Replacement Issues (2008) 32 pp., $37.00 363. Control of Invasive Species (2006) 116 pp., 388. Pre-Overlay Treatment of Existing Pavements $36.00 (2009) 143 pp., $57.00 364. Estimating Toll Road Demand and Revenue 389. Performance-Based Contracting for Maintenance (2006) 105 pp., $35.00 (2009) 106 pp., $54.00 365. Preservation and Use of Institutional Memory 390. Performance-Based Construction Contractor (2007) 113 pp., $44.00 Prequalification (2009) 101 pp., $51.00 366. State of Tribal Transportation Programs (2007) 391. Public Sector Decision Making for Public 132 pp., $44.00 Private Partnerships (2009) 130 pp., $54.00 367. Technologies for Improving Safety Data (2007) 392. Transportation's Role in Emergency Evacuation 103 pp., $45.00 and Reentry (2009) 129 pp., $57.00 368. Cone Penetration Testing (2007) 117 pp., $47.00 393. Adjacent Precast Concrete Box Beam Bridges: 369. State DOT Crash Reconstruction Practices Connection Details 75 pp., $46.00 (2007) 32 pp., $34.00 394. Reducing Litter on Roadsides 68 pp., $46.00 370. AnimalVehicle Collision Data Collection 395. Debt Finance Practices for Surface (2007) 107 pp., $47.00 Transportation 84 pp., $49.00 371. Managing Selected Transportation Assets: 396. Monitoring Scour Critical Bridges 159 pp., Signals, Lighting, Signs, Pavement Markings, $60.00 Culverts, and Sidewalks (2007) 190 pp., $51.00 397. Bridge Management Systems for Transportation 372. Emerging Technologies for Construction Agency Decision Making 126 pp., $57.00 Delivery (2007) 111 pp., $47.00 398. Cathodic Protection for Life Extension of 373. Multi-Disciplinary Teams in Context-Sensitive Existing Reinforced Concrete Bridge Elements Solutions (2007) 83 pp., $43.00 48 pp., $41.00 374. Preserving Freight and Passenger Rail Corridors 399. Real-Time Traveler Information Systems and Service (2007) 31 pp., $34.00 62 pp., $43.00 375. Bridge Inspection Practices (2007) 199 pp., 400. Identifying Needs and New Approaches to $53.00 Ecological Surveys 69 pp., $46.00 376. Quality Assurance in Design-Build Projects 401. Managing the Quality of Pavement Condition (2008) 130 pp., $54.00 Data Collection 144 pp., $57.00 377. Compilation of Public Opinion Data on Tolls 402. Construction Manager-at-Risk Project Delivery and Road Pricing (2008) 57 pp., $42.00 for Highway Programs 127 pp., $59.00 378. State Highway Cost Allocation Studies (2008) 403. Adaptive Traffic Control Systems: Domestic 65 pp., $42.00 and Foreign State of Practice 104 pp., $53.00 379. Selection and Evaluation of Alternative 404. State of the Practice in Highway Access Contracting Methods to Accelerate Project Management 112 pp., $55.00 Completion (2008) 67 pp., $45.00 405. Utility Location and Highway Design 44 pp., 380. Applications of Illuminated, Active, In- $38.00 Pavement Marker Systems (2008) 72 pp., $45.00 406. Advanced Practices in Travel Forecasting 381. Falling Weight Deflectometer Usage (2008) 80 pp., $49.00 121 pp., $52.00 407. Effective Public Involvement Using Limited 382. Estimating Stiffness of Subgrade and Unbound Resources 97 pp., $53.00 Materials for Pavement Design (2008) 129 pp., 408. Pavement Marking Warranty Specifications $54.00 56 pp., $45.00 12

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Table 4 (Continued ) No. Title, Pages, Price No. Title, Pages, Price 409. Traffic Signal Retiming Practices in the United 274. Quality Assurance of Structural Materials States 80 pp., $50.00 (2003) 21 pp., $10.00 410. Freight Transportation Surveys In Press 327. Transportation Implications of Emerging Eco- 411. Microsurfacing 115 pp. nomic Development Trends (2008) 33 pp., 412. Effective Speed Reduction Techniques for $26.00 Rural High-to-Low Speed Transitions In Press 337. Design Flexibility Considerations for Built 413. Techniques for Effective Highway Urban Environments (2009) 29 pp., $24.00 Construction Projects in Congested Urban 339. Improving the Safety of Mobile Lane Closures Areas In Press (2009) 46 pp., $30.00 350. Continuing Project to Synthesize Information Research Results Digests (RRD) on Highway Problems (2011) 18 pp. In Press 100. Safe Conduct of Traffic Through Highway Construction and Maintenance Zones (1978) Unpublished Reports (UR) 5 pp., $1.00 Topic 24-07 Pavement Markings (1997) 106. Use of Waste Materials in Highway Construction Topic 24-10 Asphalt Surface Treatments and Thin and Maintenance (1979) 2 pp., $1.00 Overlays (1997) 210. Effects of Highway Bypasses on Rural Communities and Small Urban Areas (1996) *These syntheses are available from TRB in microfiche 22 pp., $13.00 form only at a cost of $10.00 each. Table 5 INDEX TO SYNTHESES AND STUDIES (2010) 511 phone systems 399 - pavements 30, 49, 59, 104, 152, - construction 44, 53, 324, 345 171, 175, 180, 260, 338 - corrosion protection 257, 398 Accelerated pavement testing 235, - pre-overlay repair 388 - deck joints 141, 319 325 - recycling 54, 160, 193 - deck removal 169 Access management 233, 304, 332, - rut resistant 274 - deck sealers 209 337, 351, 404 - surface treatments 223 - design for maintenance 123 Accident (crash) data 91, 192, 367, Attenuators 182 - drainage 67 369, 370 Automatic vehicle identification - durability 4, 57, 86, 118, 140 Accident location 21, 91, 128, 202, (AVI) 194 - dynamic impact factors 266 399 Axial loading 360 - expansion devices 141, 319 Adaptive Traffic Control Systems Bases 37 - fatigue 354 403 Bearings for bridges 41 - failure 396 Adopt-A-Highway 394 Bidding - foundations 42, 107, 253 Advance warnings 186, 399 - qualifications 190 - galvanizing 112, 257 Aid to motorists 7 - electronic 256 - historic 101, 275, 327 Alternative contracting methods 379 Bituminous - increasing live loads, existing Archaeological investigations 347 - emulsions 30 249 Artificial intelligence 183 - patching 64 - inspection 88, 118, 353, 354, Asphalt - pavements (see Asphalt) 375, 393, 398 - cement 59 Bridges - inspection standards 397 - chip seal 342 - approaches 2, 159, 234 - local interest 327 - compaction 152 - bearings 41 - maintenance 227, 257, 327, 353, - emulsions 30, UR24-10 - below-water inspection 88 354, 393 - friction courses 49, 104, 180, - below-water maintenance 200 - management systems 227, 397 284 - below-water repair 88, 200 - membranes 220 - hot mix 388 - box beam 393 - off-system 327 - moisture damage 175 - cathodic protection 398 - overweight vehicles 359 - overlays 116, UR24-10 - concrete decks 4, 57, 86, 209, - paint removal 176, 251 - patching 64 220, 333 - painting 136 13

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Table 5 (Continued ) - patching 45 - precast 53 - DOT design 277 - posting practices 108 - pre-overlay repair 388 - negotiating for services 137 - precast concrete 53, 119, 324, - rapid test methods 187 Contaminated soils 226 393 - repair preparation 169 Context-sensitive solutions 373, 400 - prefabricated 53, 119 - resurfacing 204 Continuously reinforced pavements - prestressed, durability 140 - sealers 209 16, 60, 204, 211 - rating practices 359 - temperature tracking 372 Contracting - rehabilitation 327, 333 - water reducers 129 - bidding qualifications 190 - repair 398 Conduits - claims 105, 214 - scour 5, 200 - trenchless installation 242 - Disadvantaged Business Enter- - scour critical 396 Consolidation of concrete 44 prise 341 - steel 345 Construction - maintenance 125, 246, 389 - structural components RRD 274 - acceptance 263 - management 168 - substructure repair 88, 200 - bases and subbases 37 - microsurfacing 411 - wheel load distribution 111 - bidding qualifications 190 - overhead 315 - visualization 361 - bituminous pavements 30 - prequalifications 389, 390 Bus transit planning 69 - bridge approaches 2, 159, 234 - research 231 Bypasses, impacts of RRD 210 - bridge decks 4, 44, 57, 86 - time determination 79, 215 - concrete pavements 16, 19, 27, Control of invasive species 363 Cable-stayed bridges 353 44, 144, 204, 211 Convertible roadways 340 Capital programming 243 - consultants 146 Corridor management plans 289, CAPS (Conservation Assessment - contract claims 105, 214 337, 363 and Prioritization System) 400 - contract time 79, 215, 379 Corridor preservation 197 Cathodic protection 399 - delivery 372 Corrision, bridges 398 Changeable message signs 61, 237, - embankments 8 Cost-effectiveness analysis 142, 383 - energy factors 85 223, 396, 407 Chip seals 342 - engineering 145, 146 Costs Collisions, animalvehicle 400 - erosion control 18 - life-cycle 122, 222, 269 Commercial vehicle 386 - insurance 308 - roadside litter collection 394 Communications 7, 12, 13, 71, 165, 296 - lane occupancy 293 - user and mitigation, 269 Commercial Vehicle Information - management 51, 145, 413 Cost-plus-time bidding 379 Systems and Networks (CVISN) - Manager-at-Risk 402 Crash cushions 182, 205 386 - material certification 102, 263 Crash reconstructions 369 Compensation, 315 - pavements 16, 19, 27, 30, 44, Crash records systems 350, 367 Computer-aided design 161, 372 144, 152, 167, 204, 211 Cross sections 299 Computers 55, 372 - prequalifications 390 Culverts Concrete - quality assurance 38, 65, 212, - assessment and rehabilitation - admixtures 127, 129 232, 263, 346 303 - bridge decks 4, 57, 86, 169, 333, - recycling 54, 154, 193 - durability 50, 254 393 - specifications 38, 212, 263 - inlets 3 - consolidation 44 - staffing 51, 145 - performance and service life - dry-cast 129 - subgrades 247 371 - durability 4, 57, 129, 140 - testing 36, 65, 187 - epoxies 109 - traffic control 208, RRD 100 Data - fly ash in 127, 199 - trenchless, conduits 242 - bridge inspection 375 - foundations 360 - urban area 413 - collection 124, 126, 130, 334, - freezing and thawing 129 - utilities 115, 224 335, 350, 370, 381, 401, 406, - latex-modified 179 - value engineering 78, 352 410 - overlays 99, 204, 338 - variability 232 - quality 401 - patching 45 - warranties 195 - partnerships 288 - pavement recycling 54, 154 - weather 47 - sharing 288, 312 - pavements 16, 19, 27, 45, 56, Consultants - storage 335 60, 98, 99, 134, 144, 204, 211 - construction engineering 146 - systems 55 14

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Table 5 (Continued ) DBE 343 Edgedrains, maintenance 285 - off-ramps 35 D-cracking 134 Elderly, transportation for 39, 83 - project development 273 Debt financing 395 Electronic bids 256 - reconstruction 273 Deferred maintenance 58, 223 Electronic toll and traffic manage- - repair 25 Deicing chemical use 24, 207, 344 ment systems 194 Freight 230, 320, 374, 384, 406, Design Embankments 8, 234 410 - bituminous pavements 30, 116, Employees (see Personnel) Friction courses 49, 104, 180, 284 260 Emergency management agencies 392 Frost susceptibility 26 - bridge approaches 2, 159, 234 Emulsions 30 Fuel taxes 62, 164 - bridge bearings 41 End result specifications 38, 212 Funding, bridge mnagement 397 - computer-aided 161 Energy - concrete pavements 16, 19, 27, - bituminous emulsions 30 Galvanizing 112, 257 189, 211 - construction 85 Geographic information systems - crossroads 332 - transportation use 43, 121 301, 335 - exceptions 316 Enterprise resource planning 385 Geology 357, 360 - for bridge maintenance 123 Environmental issues 272, 305, 341, Geophysics 357 - frost 26 347, 363, 366, 394, 400, 411 Geotechnical - geometric research 299 Epoxies 109, 333 - cone penetration testing - pavement markings 356, 380 Equipment - data 33 - pavement overlays 99, 116, 204 - accident removal 318 - exploration 33 - pavements 16, 19, 26, 27, 30, - cone penetration testing 366 - In situ strength measurement 189, 211, 260, 291 - crash reconstruction 369 278 - pile foundations 42, 253 - for pavement data 126 - instrumentation 89, 253 - roadways 26, 247 - for testing 36 - load and resistance factor design - shoulders 63 - for traffic control 166, 270, 399 276 - speed reduction 412 - management of 52, 245, 283 - pile foundation vibrations 253 - toll plaza 240 - procurement of 52 - resilient modulus 382 - use of consultants 277 - selection of 52, 283 - rock-socketed shafts 360 - utilities 405 Evacuation 392 Glare screen 66 - value engineering 78, 352 Expansion devices for bridges 141, Global freight villages 384 - visualization 361 319 Grade crossings 250, 271 Design-Bid-Build 376, 391, 402 Expert systems 183 GPS Design-Build 376, 379, 390, 391, 402 - satellite positioning 258, 301 Direction finding 71 Fabrics for pavements 171 - technology 371, 385 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Falling weight deflectometers Ground penetrating radar 255, 372 343 (FWDs) 381, 382 Guaranteed maximum price 402 Disadvantaged, transportation for 39 Field testing equipment 36, 126 Guaranty of construction 195 Drainage Finance/budgets 62, 72, 80, 100, Guardrails 244 - bridge 67 117, 151, 243, 364, 366, 395 - culverts 303, 371 Fly ash 37, 127, 333 Handicapped, transportation for 39, - pavement 96, 174, 239 Fog 228 83 - pipe durability 50, 254 Foundations Hazardous materials transportation - sedimentation basins 70 - embankments 8, 29, 147, 234 - impacts on maintenance 196 - structures 3, 174 - evaluation 357 - risk assessment 103 - drilled shafts 360 - pile 42, 253 - routing criteria 261 Driver licensing 348 - shallow 107 High-occupancy vehicles (HOV) 185 Driveway regulations 304, 404 - soft strata 29, 147 High-speed weigh-in-motion (WIM) Dynamic Message Signs 399 - structure 360 systems 386 Fracture-critical members 354 Highway cost allocation 378 Ecology 302, 400 Freeways Highwayrailroad grade crossings Ecosystems 400 - corridor management 177, 351 250, 271 Economic development 290, - incident management 156, 318 Historic bridges 101, 275 RRD327 - maintenance 1, 25, 170 Historic preservation 347 15

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Table 5 (Continued ) Ice control operations 207, 344 Lighting - traffic control 1, 25, RRD 100, Impacts, economic - roadway 371 208 - development 290 Life-cycle costs 122, 269, 352 - traffic signals 22, 114, 245 - lane occupancy 293 Lime-fly ash 37 - training 10 Incident clearance 318 Litter disposal 184, 394 - tunnels 31 Incident management 156, 270, 318 Load and resistance factor design - vegetation management 340 Indian reservation transportation 366 (geotechnical) 276 - winter 24, 207, 344 Information for motorists 7, 71, 162, Load rating 359 Main tension elements 353 237, 309, 344, 348 Location reference methods 21, 91 Management Information systems 133, 296, 350, Long Term Pavement Performance - access 351 399 386 - bridges 397 Information technology 385 Low-volume pavements 27, 260 - construction 51, 145 Infrastructure improvements, invest- - contract 168 ment 395 Maintenance - corridor plans 289, 337 Innovation by private industry 149, - bituminous pavements 30, 64, - data 55, 350, 401 265 98, 388 - freeway corridor 177 In-pavement marker (IPM) system - bridges 88, 123, 200, 227, 257, - freeway incidents 156 380 319, 353, 375, 398 - letting program 331 Inspection by consultants 146, 263 - budgets 80 - knowledge 365 Inspection of bridges 88, 353, 393, - concrete pavements 19, 45, 56, - maintenance 10, 22, 46, 52, 58, 396, 398 60, 98, 204, 211, 388 80, 110, 170, 173, 245 Institutional memory 365 - contract 125 - maintenance, environmental Instrumentation 36, 235, - contracting, performance-based issues 272 Instrumentation, geotechnical 89, 253 389 - maintenance, equipment 283 Instrumentation, scour critical - costs 58, 98, 223 - major events 309, 392 bridges 396 - culverts 303 - pavement marking 408 Insurance 308 - deferred 58, 223 - personnel 11, 120, 349 Interchanges 299, 332 - edgedrains 285 - project, systems 282 Intermodal Facilities w/Freight 320, - equipment 52, 283 - research 113, 231 384, RRD327 - freeways 1, 25, 170 - risk, R-O-W 292 Intersections 299, 310 - hazardous materials impacts 196 - roadway information 133, 399 Invasives 363 - invasive species 363 - safety systems 322 ISTEA - litter disposal 184, 394 - snow and ice control operations - 15 factors 217 - management 10, 22, 46, 52, 58, 207, 344 - small MPOs 252 80, 110, 157, 173, 283 - S.E.E. assessments 40 - management systems 110, 173 - traffic signals 403, 409 Joints, bridge deck 141, 319 - pavement costs 77, 98 - training 11, 188, 349 Joints, concrete pavement 19, 56, - pavement joints 19, 56, 98, 134, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control 98, 134, 211 211 Devices 356, 380, 383, 412 Joints and cracks, sealing 98 - pavements 9, 19, 25, 30, 45, 56, Materials Just-in-time logistics RRD 327 60, 64, 98, 134, 388 - acceptance 263 - personnel 10, 344 - assurances, structural RRD 274 Knowledge management 365 - preventive, value of 153, 223, - certification 102, 263 342 - microsurfacing 411 Laboratory testing equipment 36 - public benefits 343 - pavement marking 306 Land development 233, 404 - quality assurance 148 - testing equipment 36, 263 Land use 93, 233, 320, 337, 406 - records 46 Median Latex-modified concrete 179 - recycling 54, 193 - barriers 244 Leadership 349 - reporting 46 - glare screen 66 Left-turn treatments 225, 404 - rest areas 20, 246 - openings 404 Legal liability 106, 206, 318, 369 - scheduling 170 - widths 281 Letting program 331 - signs 155, 157 Metropolitan planning organizations Light-emitting diodes 380, 387 - snow and ice 24, 207, 344 (MPOs) 217, 252, 384 16

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Table 5 (Continued ) Microsurfacing 411 Parking demands, truck 317 - striping 17, 138, 218 Mileposts 21 Partnerships - studded tires 32 Mitigation - data collection 350 - subgrade stabilization 247 - ecology 302, 400 - research 312 - surface texture 268 - lane occupancy 293 - publicprivate 391 - testing 235, 291 Modeling - public and private 313, 362 - unbound pavement materials 382 - 3D and 4D 229 Patching 9, 45, 64 - widening 28, 221 - activity-based 406 Pavements Pedestrian traffic control 139, 380 - capability 358 - asphalt 30, 49, 59, 116, 152, Performance evaluation 306, 390 - dynamic network 406 160, 171, 175, 180, 260, 284 Performance measures 238, 300, - freight and commercial - bases 37 311, 326, 352, 364, 389, 397, 408 movement 406 - concrete 16, 19, 27, 44, 56, 60, Performance-related specifications - land use 406 99, 144, 204, 211 212 - statewide 406 - condition data 76, 126, 203, 330, Permit operations 68, 143 - travel demand forecasting 364, 334 - driveway regulation 304 406 - construction 16, 19, 27, 30, 44, - effects on pavements 131 Monitoring of projects 6, 263, 282 211 - overweight vehicles 359 Motorist aid systems 7 - CRCP 16, 60 Personnel Motorist information 71, 162, 237, - data collection 401 - bridge inspection 141 329, 399 - design 189, 260, 291, 382 - construction engineering 51, 145 Multi-disciplinary teams 373 - distress 9, 334 - maintenance 10 Multimodal transportation 201, - drainage 96, 239 - planning for 120 286 - durability 59, 160, 274 - recruiting and maintaining 323, - effects of overloads 131 349 National Bridge Inspection Standards - evaluation 76, 126, 203 - S.E.E. assessment 40 (NBIS) 397 - fabrics 171 - training 10, 11, 163, 188, 248, Native American transportation 366 - friction 14, 158, 291 313, 346 Needs studies 72, 151 - friction courses 49, 104, 180, 284 Photographic traffic law enforce- NEPA (National Environmental - frost design 26 ment 219, 310 Policy Act) 400 - joints 19, 56, 98, 134, 211 Photologging 94 New-product evaluation 90, 150, 265 - life-cycle costs 122, 269 Pile foundations 42, 253 Nondestructive testing/evaluation - light duty 260 Pipe durability 50, 254, 303 354, 382 - low-volume 27, 260 Planning Noise barriers 87, 181 - maintenance 9, 19, 25, 30, 45, - access management 404 Noise characteristics of pavements 56, 60, 64, 98, 134, 211, 223, - evacuation and reentry 392 268 342, 388, 411 - forecasting models 358, 364 - maintenance costs 77, 98, 223 - freight 230, 314, 320 Off-ramps 35 - management 135, 222, 335, 401 - invasive species 363 Older drivers 348 - markings 17, 138, UR24-07, - major events 309 Open-graded surfaces 49, 104, 180, 306, 356, 371, 380, 408, 412 - MPOs 217, 252 284 - moisture damage 175 - multimodal evaluation 201 Outsourcing 246, 313 - noise characteristics 268 - personnel 120 Overhead 315 - overlays 9, 92, 99, 116, 144, - pre-project 347 Overlays 9, 49, 92, 99, 104, 116, 204, 388 - public involvement 407 144, 204, 338 - patching 9, 45, 64 - real-time traveler information 399 Overload effects 131 - pre-overlay treatments 388 - statewide transportation 15, 95, Overweight vehicles 359 - recycling 54, 154, 160, 193 286 Owner Controlled Insurance - rehabilitation 9, 25, 92, 134, - strategic 326 Programs 308 222, 335, 338, 342, 388 - toll road 364 - rut resistant (asphalt) 274 - transit 69, 73 Painting steel bridges 136 - sealers 209 - transportation 73, 201, 332 Paint removal 176, 251 - skid resistance 14, 158 - value engineering 352 Park-and-ride facilities 213 - smoothness 167 - visualization 361 17

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Table 5 (Continued ) Poor, transportation for 39 Reflection cracking 9, 92 Scour 5, 200, 396 Posting of bridges 108 Regulations Sealers for PCC highway facilities Pothole repair 45, 64 - driveway 304, 351 209 Pozzolans 37, 127, 199 - utility location 405 Security 392 Precast concrete 53, 119, 324, 327 Rehabilitation Sedimentation basins 18, 70 Prefabricated structural systems - bridges 327, 353 Severity indices 202 119, 327, 345 - culverts 303 Sidewalks Preferential lane treatments 185 - freeways 25 - maintenance 371 Preservation - pavements 9, 56, 92, 99, 134, Signs - historic bridges 275 204, 222 - advance warning 186 - rail corridors 374 - subgrades, stabilization 247 - changeable message 61, 237, Prestressed concrete durability 140 Relationships 297 383 Prevention Research - dynamic message 399 - roadside maintenance 363 - contract 231 - maintenance 155, 157, 371 Preventive maintenance 153, 223, - implementation 23, 150, 355 - motorist information 71, 162, 392 330, 411 - management 113 Size regulation and enforcement Priority programming 48, 84, 222 - partnerships 312 68, 143 Private sector involvement 149, 246, - performance measures 300 Skid resistance 14, 158, 291 265, 313, 355 - robust programs 280 Sleep deprivation 286 Process management 300 Resilient modulus (MR) 382 Slurry 411 Professional engineering services Rest areas 20, 287, 317 Smart jobsites 385 - construction 146 Resurfacing portland cement Smoothness, pavements 167 - design 277 concrete 204 Snow and ice control 24, 207, 344 - negotiating 137 Retroreflectivity 304, 380 Soft foundations 29, 147 Programming 48, 72, 84, 151, 243 Revenue forecasting 364 Soils Program quality 300 Right-of-way - erosion 18 Public involvement 407 - clearance 292 - measuring, in-situ 278, 368, 382 Project delivery 385, 402 - utilities 34, 224, 405 - remediation of contaminated Project development 273, 292, 331, Risk assessment, hazardous materials 226 361, 405 103 Specifications 38, 65, 212, 306 Project scheduling 6, 215, 243, 282 Road pricing 210, 269, 377 Spectrum management 13 Public opinion data 377 Roadside hazard severity 202 Speed reduction 412 Publicprivate partnerships 391 Roadway Stabilization - convertible 340 - bases 37 Quality assurance 38, 65, 148, 212, - information systems 133, 399 - subbases 247 232, 263, RRD 274, 346, 375, 376 - incident diversion practices 279, Staffing Quality management 401 399 - construction 51, 145, 263 Quality control RRD 274, 346, 386, - safety tools, localities 321 - maintenance 10 411 Rock-socketed shafts 360 - planning for 120 Routing, hazardous materials 261 - public involvement 407 Radio communications 12, 13, 165 Rubber tire uses 198, 199 - S.E.E. assessments 40 Radio frequency 13 Rumble strips 191, 339 Standards, travel survey 236 Railroad grade crossings 252, 271 - historic bridges 275 Rail service 374 Safety 1, 3, 7, 14, 32, 49, 66, 91, Statewide transportation planning Rails to Trails 374 RRD 100, 128, 132, 156, 158, 15, 95, 267, 286 Rapid test methods 187 182, 186, 191, 192, 202, 205, 244, Statistical methods 295 Reconstruction 247, 273 286, 295, 299, 306, 308, 310, 318, Statistical specifications 38, 65, 212, Recreation travel 329 321, 336, 339, 340, 348, 350, 356, 232 Recycling highway materials 54, 359, 370, 380, 383, 397, 403, 404, Stormwater management 174 154, 160, 193, 198, 199 408, 412 Stream scour 5, 200 Reduced visibility 228 Safety analysis 295, 336 Strategic planning 326, 363 Reference methods 21 Safety management systems 322 Striping 17, 138, 218 Reference posts 21, 91 Scheduling of projects 6, 222, 243, 292 Structures (see bridges) 18

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Table 5 (Continued ) Studded tires 32 Traffic control Travel Demand Forecasting 364, Subbases 37 - calming 412 384, 406 Subgrades, stabilization 247, 382 - circles 264 Travel Information Systems 399 Subsurface information 33, 255, - configuration management Travel surveys 236 405 294 Tribal Transportation 366 Subsurface Utility Engineering - construction RRD 100, 208 Truck (SUE) 405 - convertible lanes 340 - escape ramps 178 Succession 349, 362 - crossroads 332 - increasing traffic 314 Superplasticizers for concrete 129 - devices 61, 166, 186, 237, 387 - operating characteristics 241 Surface courses 49, 104, 180, - equipment 166 - parking demands 317 UR24-07 - left-turn treatments 225 - trip generation 298 Surveying, GPS satellite 258, 301 - maintenance 1, RRD 100, 208, - truck weights and sizes 68, 82, Surveys 410 245 124, 143, 386 Systems, long-range planning 400 - management centers 270 Tunnels, maintenance and operation Systems, maintenance 283 - management plans 294 31 Systems, traffic control 307 - pedestrian 139 - plans 208 Underwater bridge inspection 88 Taxes, fuel 62, 164 - priority lanes 185 Underwater bridge repair 88, 200 Technology transfer 23, 150, 216, - ramps 35 Urban freeways 25, 273 231, 280, 355 - red light cameras 31 Utilities 34, 115, 242, 405 Telecommunications 12, 165 - signal systems 245, 387, 403, Telephones 12, 165 409 Value engineering 78, 352, 361 Testing - speed reduction 412 Variable message signs 61, 237, 383 Vegetation management 363 - cone penetration 366 - systems development 307, 387, Vehicle attenuators 182 - construction 36, 65, 263 403 Vehicles, larger 281 - rapid 187 - work zones 1, RRD 100, 208 Vibration from piles 253 - soils (in-situ) 278 Traffic signals Vibration of concrete 44 - equipment 36, 187 - equipment 166 Video monitoring - pavements 235, 291, 325 - left turns 225 - web-based 372 Toll - maintenance 22, 114, 245, 371, Video traffic law enforcement 219 - collection 194 387, 403 Visibility 228, 348 - financing 117 - operations 367, 403 Visualization 229, 361 - modeling 364 - preemption (rail) 271 - plaza design 240 - retiming 409 Warranties - practices 262 - timing 172, 403 - construction 195 - pricing 377 Training of personnel 10, 11, 163, - microsurfacing 411 - revenue collection 364 188, 248, 346, 349, 354, 355, - pavement markings 408 Tort liability 106, 206, 265 362, 375 Waste materials RRD 106, 199 Tourism 329 Transit Waterproofing membranes for Traffic - boards 75 bridge decks 220 - commercial vehicle and freight - development process 267 Weather 47, 344 384 - economic benefits 290 Weigh-in-motion 124, 386 - congestion 314 - elderly/handicapped 39, 83 Weight regulation and enforcement - data collection 130, 350, 406 - investment 290 68, 82, 124, 143 - incident clearance, quick 318 - management assistance 74 Wetland mitigation 302 - law enforcement 219, 310 - management centers 270 Whitetopping 338 - management 383, 403 - ownership 97 Widening of pavements 28, 221 - markings 17, 138, 218, 408 - planning 15, 69, 72, 73, 95, 151, Wildlife 305, 370, 400 - paint 17, 138, 218 201, 230, 252, 331 Winter maintenance 24, 207, 344 - safety 1, 3, 32, 35, 66, RRD 100, - system management 81, 93, Work schedules 73 202, 205, 244, 350, 367 259 Work zone traffic 1, RRD 100, 208 19

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Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ISBN 978-0-309-14326-4 Subscriber Categories: Aviation Highways Motor Carriers Pedestrians and Bicyclists 90000 Public Transportation Railroads Administration and Management Bridges and Other Structures Construction Design Economics Energy Environment Finance Geotechnology Hydraulics and Hydrology Maintenance and Preservation Materials Operations and Traffic Management Pavements Planning and Forecasting Research Safety and Human Factors Society Transportation, General Terminals and Facilities Vehicles and Equipment 9 780309 143264 These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP.