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January 2011 AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Responsible Senior Program Officer: Michael R. Salamone Research Results Digest 12 SYNTHESIS OF INFORMATION RELATED TO AIRPORT PRACTICES This is a staff digest of the progress and status of ACRP Project 11-03, "Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices," for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. Individual studies for the project are managed by Gail R. Staba, Senior Program Officer, and Jon M. Williams, Program Director, Synthesis Studies, serving under the Studies and Special Programs Division of the Transportation Research Board, Stephen R. Godwin, Director. INTRODUCTION Suggestions for synthesis topics may Airport administrators, engineers, and be sent to the ACRP Manager at any researchers often face problems for which time by contacting the Cooperative information already exists, either in docu- Research Programs Staff, Transporta- mented form or as undocumented experi- tion Research Board, 500 Fifth Street, ence and practice. This information may NW, Washington, D.C., 20001. You be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. can also submit your recommendation As a consequence, full knowledge of what at: http://www.trb.org/ACRP/Public/ has been learned about a problem may not ACRP.aspx "Submit an ACRP Topic." be brought to bear on its solution. Costly Topics suggested must be accompanied research findings may go unused, valuable by a brief (one or two paragraphs) scope experience may be overlooked, and due statement, including a discussion of the consideration may not be given to recom- problem. A title (preferably 10 words mended practices for solving or alleviating or less) and the name and affiliation of the problem. the submitter are also necessary. Sug- There is information on nearly every gestions for updates of published syn- subject of concern to the airport industry. theses are also welcome. The ACRP Much of it derives from research or from the Project Panel meets once each year work of practitioners faced with problems to make the final selections. To be in their day-to-day work. To provide a sys- considered at the next annual meeting, tematic means for assembling and evaluat- all submissions should be received by ing such useful information and making it October 2011. If a topic is not selected, available to the entire airport community, the problem statement must be re- the Airport Cooperative Research Program submitted the following year to be authorized the Transportation Research reconsidered. Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, ACRP Project 11-03, "Synthesis of Interested in writing a synthesis? For Information Related to Airport Practices," details, see the Synthesis homepage searches out and synthesizes useful knowl- (address above) under "New Topics." edge from all available sources and prepares

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concise, documented reports on specific topics. Re- Table 1 ACRP SYNTHESIS STUDIES--In Progress ports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report as of December 2010 series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. No. Title S01-03 Airport Insurance Coverage and Risk THE SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Management Practices This synthesis series reports on current knowl- S01-04 Airline and AirportAirline Consortiums edge and practice, in a compact format, without the to Manage Terminals and Equipment detailed directions usually found in handbooks or S02-05 Strategies and Financing Opportunities for design manuals. Each report in the series provides a Airport Environmental Programs compendium of the best knowledge available on those S03-06 Strategies for Re-use of Underutilized or measures found to be most successful in resolving Vacant Airport Facilities specific problems. S04-05 Bird Harassment, Repellant, or Deterrent Techniques on Airports To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive S04-06 Current Airport Inspection Practices manner and to ensure inclusion of significant knowl- Regarding FOD/Wildlife Hazards edge, TRB employs a consultant to gather and analyze S06-02 Airport Self-Inspection Procedures and available information from numerous sources, includ- Training Practices ing airport operations agencies. A panel of experts in S09-02 Common Airport Pavement Maintenance the subject area is established to guide the consultant Practices in organizing and evaluating the data collected on each S10-05 Ramp Safety Practices topic and to review the synthesis report. S10-06 Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy For each topic the project objectives are (1) to lo- Technologies on Airports and Aviation cate and assemble documented information; (2) to learn what practice has been used for solving or alle- viating the problems; (3) to identify all ongoing re- Table 2 ACRP SYNTHESIS STUDIES-- search; (4) to learn what problems remain largely un- 2011 Projects solved; (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the useful information that is acquired; and (6) to dis- No. Title seminate the synthesis information to all who might S11-02-06 Airport Climate Change benefit from it. Adaptation and Preparedness Each synthesis is an immediately useful docu- S11-04-07 Lessons Learned from Airport ment that records practices that were acceptable within Safety Management Systems the limitations of the knowledge available at the time Pilot Study of its preparation. New knowledge can be expected S11-04-08 Managing Aerial Firefighting to be added to that which is now at hand and eventu- Activities on Airports ally the synthesis may need to be updated or redone. S11-06-03 Managing Commuting Needs The readers and users of the syntheses are in the best of Airport Employees position to know when this has occurred. Whenever S11-09-03 Locating Underground Utilities you believe that a synthesis should be updated, it at Airports and Geographic would be appreciated if you would contact TRB and Information Systems S11-09-04 Issues with Use of Airfield LED propose a synthesis update by contacting the ACRP Light Fixtures Manager, Transportation Research Board, 500 Fifth S11-10-07 Matrix of Aircraft Recovery Street, NW, Washington D.C. 20001. Equipment for Various Aircraft Studies in Progress and Planned for 2011 M. Williams, by e-mail at jwilliams@nas.edu, or by Work is currently under way on the topics listed phone at 202-334-3245. in Table 1. Topics selected for the 2011 program are listed in Table 2. Questions on these topics should Available Publications be addressed to the project study manager, Gail R. Staba, by e-mail at gstaba@nas.edu, or by phone at The syntheses of airport practice that have been 202-334-2442, or the Synthesis Study Manager, Jon completed under this project are listed in Table 3. 2

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Table 3 PUBLISHED ACRP SYNTHESES No. Title/Pages 1 Innovative Finance and Alternative Sources of Revenue for Airports (2007) 43 pp., $34 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_001.pdf 2 Airport Aviation Activity Forecasting (2007) 32 pp., $34 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_002.pdf 3 General Aviation Safety and Security Practices (2007) 44 pp., $44 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_003.pdf 4 Counting Aircraft Operations at Small and Non-towered Airports (2007) 33 pp., $44 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_004.pdf 5 Airport Ground Access Mode Choice Models (2008) 104 pp., $39 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_005.pdf 6 Impact of Airport Pavement Deicing Products on Aircraft and Airfield Infrastructure (2008) 58 pp., $42 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_006.pdf 7 Airport Economic Impact Methods and Models (2008) 67 pp., $45 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_007.pdf 8 Common Use Facilities and Equipment at Airports (2008) 121 pp., $52 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_008.pdf 9 Effects of Aircraft Noise: Research Update on Select Topics (2008) 90 pp., $50 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_009.pdf 10 Airport Sustainability Practices (2008) 112 pp., $52 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_010.pdf 11 Impact of Airport Rubber Removal Techniques on Runways (2008) 108 pp., $52 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_011.pdf 12 Preventing AircraftVehicle Incidents During Winter Operations and Periods of Low Visibility (2008) 70 pp., $45 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_012.pdf 13 Effective Practices for Preparing Airport Improvement Program Benefit-Cost Analysis (2009) 65 pp., $43 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_013.pdf 14 Airport System Planning Practices (2009) 71 pp., $41 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_014.pdf 15 Identification of the Requirements and Training to Obtain Driving Privileges on Airfields (2009) 43 pp., $48 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_015.pdf 16 Compilation of Noise Programs in Areas Outside DNL 65 (2009) 104 pp., $51 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_016.pdf 17 Approaches to Integrating Airport Development and Federal Environmental Review Processes (2009) 34 pp., $38 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_017.pdf 18 Aviation Workforce Development Practices (2010) 36 pp., $39 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_018.pdf 19 Airport Revenue Diversification (2010) 55 pp., $41 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_019.pdf 20 Airport Terminal Facility Activation Techniques (2010) 127 pp., $58 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_020.pdf 21 Airport Energy Efficiency and Cost Reduction (2010) 73 pp., $47 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_021.pdf Copies of these syntheses can be obtained from trb.org/Publications/Public/PubsACRPSynthesis the Publications Office, Transportation Research Reports.aspx) and may be downloaded free of Board, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C., charge. 20001; by calling 202/334-3213; and through the Internet at: http://www.trb.org/bookstore. Please Selection of Topics send check orders to: TRB, Dept. 289, Washington, D.C., 20055 or fax to: 202/334-2519. All ACRP re- ACRP Project Panel 11-03 meets each year to ports are available as online publications (http://www. select topics for study using funds from the upcoming 3

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fiscal year. The membership of this committee is tees; aviation organizations; and other practitioners given in Table 4. Current funding allows for initia- and researchers. tion of about five syntheses per year. These, plus some alternate topics, are selected by the committee Conduct of the Studies at its annual project meeting. The following factors are considered in the selec- Following the project panel's selection of topics, tion process for synthesis topics: studies are initiated in the order of priority assigned The topic should address a problem that is wide- by the panel. A topic panel consisting of practition- ers and researchers is formed for each topic. At its spread enough to generate broad interest in the first meeting, this topic panel thoroughly discusses synthesis. The topic should be timely and critical with the topic, refines the scope, suggests sources of in- formation, and identifies and selects potential topic respect to safety, economic, or social impact. The topic is appropriate if current practice is consultants based on expressions of interest received in response to an industry-wide solicitation. nonuniform or inconsistent from agency to Following this meeting, a consultant is hired to agency, or if the validity of some practices gather information on the topic, synthesize it, and appears to be questionable. The quality and quantity of useful available draft a report. Typically, the agreement covers a pe- riod of six to seven months. Information gathering information should indicate a need to organize and preparation of the first draft of the synthesis re- and compress that which has already been port takes about four months. This draft is reviewed learned and written on the topic. The topic should not be one where ongoing by the topic panel with the consultant, often at the sec- ond panel meeting. A revised draft is then prepared by research or other activities in progress might the consultant. Subsequent drafts and meetings are be expected to render the synthesis obsolete scheduled, if needed, although this rarely occurs. shortly after completion. After the staff is substantially satisfied with the re- Each year more topics are suggested for the com- port, a final draft is sent to members of the topic panel mittee's consideration than can be programmed for for their last chance to review the report and then study in Project 11-03. Nevertheless, the continued ACRP Project Committee 11-03 for final approval. success of this project depends on a constant supply The report is subsequently published as an ACRP of worthy synthesis topics. The interest of those who Synthesis of Airport Practice. have recommended topics is sincerely appreciated, and they are urged to continue. Candidate topics are Index of Topic Studies suggested by members of the panel and by a vari- ety of other sources, including airport, airline, and Table 5 is a key word index of published syn- state aviation personnel; FAA and TRB commit- theses. Table 4 ACRP PROJECT PANEL 11-03 Name Affiliation Chair Julie Kenfield Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. Member Randall P. Burdette Virginia Department of Aviation Member Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting, Inc. Member Linda Howard Bastrop, Texas Member Arlyn Purcell Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Member Burr Stewart Seattle, Washington Liaison Paul Devoti Federal Aviation Administration Liaison John L. Collins Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Liaison A.J. Muldoon ACINorth America TRB Liaison Christine Gerencher Transportation Research Board ACRP Synthesis Staff Gail R. Staba Transportation Research Board ACRP Staff Michael R. Salamone Transportation Research Board 4

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Table 5 INDEX TO SYNTHESES AND STUDIES (2010) Access control 3 General aviation 1, 3, 4, 17, 19, 20, 21 Aeronautical revenue 1, 19 Aircraft noise 9, 16 Infrastructure 6 Airfield driving 12, 15 Innovative finance 1 Airport access/egress 5, 15 Airport construction 20, 21 Low visibility 12 Airport design 20, 21 Airport development environmental review 7, 8, 10, Management systems 8, 21 13, 16, 17, 21 Master plans 17 Airport environment 10, 17, 21 Mode choice/mode of transportation 5 Airport human resources 12, 15, 18, 20 Modeling 5, 7 Airport Improvement Program (AIP) 2, 13, 14 Airport maintenance 11, 21 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Airport operations 3, 4, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 20, 21 9, 17 Airport planning 14 National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) Airport system planning 14 2, 7, 13, 14 Airport terminal facility activation 20 Noise 9, 16 Aviation activity forecasting 2, 4, 5 Non-aeronautical revenue 1, 19 Aviation noise abatement 16 Aviation operations 12 Passenger facility charge 1, 20 Passenger services 8, 19 Baggage 8 Pavement 6 Benefit-cost 13 Pavement deicing 6 Privatization 1 Capital financing 1, 21 Commercial development 1, 21 Revenue 1, 13, 19 Common Use 8, 19 Rubber removal 11 Common Use Passenger Processing Systems (CUPPS) Runway safety 3, 11, 12, 15 8, 19 Common Use Self-Service (CUSS) 8, 19 Safety 3, 11, 12, 15 Community Noise Equivalent Level (CNEL) 9, 16 Schultz Curve 9 Corrosion damage 6 Security 3 Cost recovery 4, 19, 21 Signage 8 Counting Aircraft 4 Skid resistance 11 Sound Exposure Level (SEL) 9, 16 Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL) 9, 16 Sustainability 10, 14 Economic development 7, 10, 13, 19 Terminal area forecast 2 Economic impact 7 Training 3, 12, 15, 18, 20 Energy audit 10, 19, 21 Travel forecasting 2, 5, 13, 14 Energy management system 10, 19, 21 Environmental assessment 13, 17 Vehicle-aircraft incidents 12 Environmental practices 10, 11, 21 Voice over IP (VoIP) 8, 20 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) 17 Waterblasting 11 Facility activation 20 Winter operations 6, 12 Federal Interagency Committee on Noise (FICON) 9, 16 Workforce development 3, 12, 15, 18, 20 5

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Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ISBN 978-0-309-14325-7 90000 Subscriber Categories: Aviation Energy Environment Education and Training Finance Maintenance and Preservation Safety and Human Factors Terminals and Facilities 9 780309 143257 These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP.