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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 33 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Guidebook for Developing and Managing Airport Contracts

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (re- Governments, Arlington tired) VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James Crites Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, DallasFort Worth International Airport Norfolk, VA Richard de Neufville William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kevin C. Dolliole Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Unison Consulting Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, John K. Duval Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Austin Commercial, LP Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Kitty Freidheim Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Freidheim Consulting Steve Grossman Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Jacksonville Aviation Authority Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Federal Aviation Administration Gina Marie Lindsey Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Los Angeles World Airports Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Carolyn Motz Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Hagerstown Regional Airport Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Richard Tucker Authority, Atlanta, GA Huntsville International Airport David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Paula P. Hochstetler Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Airport Consultants Council Sabrina Johnson Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI U.S. Environmental Protection Agency C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Laura McKee Air Transport Association of America Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Henry Ogrodzinski J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT National Association of State Aviation Officials Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Melissa Sabatine George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York American Association of Airport Executives Robert E. Skinner, Jr. University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the SECRETARY Interior, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2010. *Membership as of October 2010.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 33 Guidebook for Developing and Managing Airport Contracts Kent Vanden Oever AIRPROJECTS, INC. Alexandria, VA Angela Gittens HNTB CORPORATION Miami, FL Susan Warner-Dooley HNTB CORPORATION New York, NY Alexander Zaslov HNTB CORPORATION Arlington, VA Helen Tremont TO THE MAX CONSULTING, LLC McLean, VA Tess Snipes ABOVE & BEYOND CONSULTING, LLC Atlanta, GA Sam Hoerter SAM HOERTER, LLC Mt. Pleasant, SC Subscriber Categories Aviation Finance Law Terminals and Facilities Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 33 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 01-02 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-15532-8 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2010943404 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. they are considered essential to the object of the report. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 33 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Joseph J. Brown-Snell, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 01-02 PANEL Field of Administration Shirley J. Ybarra, Reason Foundation, Washington, DC (Chair) Kathey Boze, Fort Smith Regional Airport, Fort Smith, AR Mahi Chambers, MemphisShelby County Airport Authority, Memphis, TN James F. Hayes, Satterwhite Law Firm, Goochland, VA Alex M. Kashani, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Washington, DC Hana Rocek, Airport Consulting, Inc./McCarran Airport, Henderson, NV Kevin C. Willis, FAA Liaison James I. Briggs, Jr., Airports Council InternationalNorth America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 33: Guidebook for Developing and Managing Airport Contracts provides an intuitive, easy-to-use guidebook of best practices for developing, soliciting, and manag- ing airport agreements and contracts for use by a variety of airports. This report responds to the need for a single resource for examples of current airport best practices in preparing and administering agreements. The agreements referenced in this guidebook range from airline-related agreements to communication and utility service as well as common-use, ground transportation, and concessions agreements for a variety of passenger services. An accompanying CD-ROM provides sample agreements in each of these areas. This report will be useful for administrators; finance, properties and contract services staff at airports of all sizes; and other stakeholders involved in dealing with a variety of airport agreements and contracts. Airport operators are responsible for developing and managing a wide variety of aero- nautical and non-aeronautical agreements. These include, but are not limited to, agreements for airport use (both airline and non-airline), design and construction, commercial devel- opment, commercial operations, management, intergovernmental relations, real estate, maintenance and operations of buildings and grounds, utilities, administrative services, military use, airport "through-the-fence" operations, common-use facilities, ground trans- portation, and concessions for a variety of passenger services (i.e., rental car, parking, and retail/food/beverage). In addition, with the constantly changing environment in the airline industry, airports are becoming more responsible for services and programs that were traditionally the responsibility of the airlines. While large airports typically have full-time professional property- or business-management offices to oversee the development, solicitation, award, administration, and overall management of these contracts, many medium and small air carrier airports as well as many general aviation airports do not. At these airports, the staff responsible for contracts may have other responsibilities in addition to administering these airport agreements and are often not aware of evolving trends or best practices for airports. It is difficult to obtain templates for specific kinds of agreements and time-consuming to learn proven techniques for administering airport agreements. However, within the airport industry, several airports have developed and implemented creative programs. Other airports can benefit from their experience and example. In addition, the operators of overseas airports have developed and implemented contract procedures that are not widely known in the United States. To obtain copies of agreements that represent "best practices," airport operators were required to contact their peers individually, as there was no clearinghouse or easily accessible source for these documents. This report provides a consolidated location for such information. This research effort was conducted by HNTB under ACRP Project 01-02.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Airline Agreements 1 1.1 Length of Term 2 1.2 Control of Space 3 1.3 Loading Bridge Ownership and Maintenance 3 1.4 Ability to Accommodate New Entrants and Growing Incumbents 4 1.5 Affiliate Definition and Treatment 4 1.6 Treatment of Alliances 5 1.7 Vacancy Risk 5 1.8 Privileges Granted 6 1.9 Defined Obligations 6 1.10 Maintenance, Repair, and Janitorial 6 1.11 Reporting of Activity 7 1.12 Form and Amount of Payment Security 8 1.13 Insurance 9 1.14 Assignments and Subletting 10 1.15 Handling Agreements 10 1.16 Rate Making 11 1.17 Billing, Payments and Adjustments 12 1.18 Aviation Security 12 1.19 MII Approval for Capital Projects; Formula for MII Calculation 14 1.20 Bankruptcy Provisions 15 Chapter 2 Concession Agreements 15 2.1 Financial Terms 19 2.2 Service and Operational Terms 20 2.3 Food and Beverage Concessions 24 2.4 Specialty Retail/News and Gifts 24 2.5 Passenger Services 24 2.6 Parking 25 2.7 Rental Cars 30 Chapter 3 Communication and Utility Services 30 3.1 Critical Issues--Fiber, Cable, and Internet 31 3.2 Critical Issues--Distributed Antenna Systems 33 3.3 Critical Issues--Telephone Service to Airport Sponsor 36 3.4 Critical Issues--Utility Leases or Easements 38 Chapter 4 General Aviation 38 4.1 Minimum Standards 39 4.2 Critical Issues--Fixed-Base Operators 42 4.3 Critical Issues--Hangar Leases 43 4.4 Through-the-Fence Arrangements

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44 Chapter 5 Ground Transportation Agreements 44 5.1 Trends in Ground Transportation Agreements 46 5.2 Definitions 46 5.3 Critical Issues in Ground Transportation 49 Chapter 6 Contract Services 49 6.1 Characteristics of Contract Services 49 6.2 Deciding to Contract Services 49 6.3 Critical Issues in Contracting Services 53 Chapter 7 Professional Services 53 7.1 Critical Issues in Professional Services Agreements 56 7.2 Selection Process 57 Chapter 8 Proposal and Bid Documents 57 8.1 Best Practices in Bid/RFP/RFQ Process 63 8.2 Proposal Evaluations 64 8.3 Best Practices Specific to Bid Processes 66 Chapter 9 Non-Aviation Development 66 9.1 Key Factors for Success in Airport Commercial Land Development 69 9.2 M/W/D/BE Participation 69 9.3 FAA Compliance 71 Chapter 10 Multiple-Use Facilities 71 10.1 Parties to Contract 71 10.2 Term 72 10.3 Scope of Services 72 10.4 Indemnity Issues 72 10.5 Ownership Issues 72 10.6 Resolution of Disputes 72 10.7 Compensation 73 10.8 Rights and Responsibilities of the Parties 73 10.9 Reporting 74 Chapter 11 Agreements with Public Agencies and Not-For-Profit Organizations 74 11.1 Agreements with Sister Organizations 74 11.2 Public Art