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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 681 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Development of a Precast Bent Cap System for Seismic Regions

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 681 Development of a Precast Bent Cap System for Seismic Regions Jos I. Restrepo UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO La Jolla, CA Matthew J. Tobolski TOBOLSKI | WATKINS ENGINEERING, INC. San Diego, CA Eric E. Matsumoto CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, SACRAMENTO Sacramento, CA Subscriber Categories Highways Bridges and Other Structures Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 681 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 12-74 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-15533-5 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2010943434 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 681 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Senior Program Officer Danna Powell, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 12-74 PANEL Field of Design--Area of Bridges Richard A. Pratt, Alaska DOT and Public Facilities, Juneau, AK (Chair) Xiaohua Hannah Cheng, New Jersey DOT, Trenton, NJ Carl J. Fuselier, Arkansas SHTD, Little Rock, AR Jim Ma, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Richard Marchione, New York State DOT, Albany, NY Chuck Prussack, Central Pre-Mix Prestress Company, Spokane, WA Holly Winston, Oregon DOT, Salem, OR Lloyd M. Wolf, Texas DOT, Austin, TX Derrell A. Manceaux, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 12-74 by the Department of Struc- tural Engineering at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Dr. Jos I. Restrepo, Professor of Structural Engineering at UCSD, was the Principal Investigator. Dr Eric E. Matsumoto, P.E., from Cali- fornia State University, Sacramento (CSUS), was the Co-Principal Investigator. The other author of this report is Dr. Matthew J. Tobolski, P.E., former graduate researcher at UCSD and current President of Tobolski Watkins Engineering, Inc. Other invaluable members of the research team include Mary Lou Ralls, P.E., of Ralls Newman, LLC; Steve Mislinski, P.E., of LAN/AECOM; and Dr. M.J. Nigel Priestley and Jon Grafton of Pomeroy Corpo- ration. Additionally, industry oversight was provided by Dr. Reid Castrodale, P.E., of Carolina Stalite; Bill Spence, P.E., of Tidewater Skanska, Inc.; Lucian Bodgan, P.E., of Dywidag Systems International; Robert Gulyas of BASF; Scott Harrigan, P.E., of The Fort Miller Co., Inc.; and Daniel Tassin, P.E., of International Bridge Technologies. As a significant portion of this research relied on experimental testing, the excep- tional efforts and dedication of the lab staff of both UCSD and CSUS must be acknowledged.

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FOREWORD By Waseem Dekelbab Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report develops and validates precast concrete bent cap systems for use throughout the nation's seismic regions. The report also includes a series of recommended updates to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Guide Specification for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design, and AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications that will provide safe and reliable seismic resistance in a cost-effective, durable, and constructible manner. The material in this report will be of immediate interest to bridge engineers. Precast bent cap systems are of increasing utility in highway construction. Precasting moves concrete forming, pouring, and curing operations out of the work zone, making bridge construction safer and more environmentally friendly, and it removes bent cap construction from the critical path, thus accelerating the construction process. Precasting also improves quality and durability because the work is performed in a more controlled environment. The accelerated construction benefits of precast bent cap systems support the philosophy of "get in, get out, stay out." Successful use of precast bent caps relies on proper design, constructibility, and performance of the connections. Early uses of precast bent caps were limited to applications where minimal moment and shear transfer were required at connections. In seismic regions, provisions normally must be made to transfer greater forces through connections. The research was performed under NCHRP Project 12-74 by the University of California, San Diego, with the assistance of California State University, Sacramento; Tobolski Watkins Engineering, Inc.; and Ralls Newman, LLC. The research presented herein develops and validates design methodologies, recommends design and construction specifications, and provides design examples and example connection details for precast bent cap systems using emulative and hybrid connections for integral and nonintegral systems for all seismic regions throughout the United States. A number of deliverables are provided as attachments to this report, including design flow charts, design examples, example connection details, specimen drawings, specimen test reports, and an implementation plan from the research agency's final report. These are not published herein but are available on the TRB website at www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/ 164089.aspx. These attachments are titled as follows: Attachment DS--Design Specifications Attachment DE--Design Examples Attachment CS--Construction Specifications

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Attachment ECD--Example Connection Details Attachment SD --Specimen Drawings Attachment TR--Test Reports Attachment CPT--Corrugated Pipe Thickness Attachment IP--NCHRP 12-74 Implementation Plan

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Introduction 5 1.1 Background 7 1.2 Implications for Bridge Design and Construction 7 1.3 Key Results from Initial Report 8 1.4 Summary of Experimental Specimens 9 Chapter 2 Findings 9 2.1 Introduction 9 2.2 Description of Experimental Test Program 33 2.3 Test Results 59 2.4 Analytical Results 62 Chapter 3 Interpretation, Appraisal, and Applications 62 3.1 Overview 62 3.2 Development of Design Specifications 82 3.3 Proposed Changes to AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design and AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 83 3.4 Design Flow Charts and Design Examples 84 3.5 Development of Construction Specifications 92 3.6 Proposed Changes to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications 92 3.7 Example Connection Details 94 Chapter 4 Conclusions 94 4.1 Test Specimens 97 4.2 Design Specifications 99 4.3 Design Flow Charts and Design Examples 100 4.4 Construction Specifications 101 4.5 Example Connection Details 101 4.6 Implementation Plan 102 References 104 Unpublished Material