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REPORT S2-R26-RR-2 Guidelines for the Preservation of High-Traffic- Volume Roadways Accelerating solutions for highway safety, renewal, reliability, and capacity

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, Kentucky Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi Department of Transportation, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia William A. V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, Minnesota Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, D.C. Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (Past Chair, 2009) Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka (Past Chair, 2008) Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, Louisiana Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, Washington Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, Georgia David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and Chief Executive Officer, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin (Past Chair, 1991) EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, Georgia George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C. Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. (Past Chair, 1992) Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S. Department of Transportation Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. *Membership as of September 2010.

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The Second S T R A T E G I C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M REPORT S2-R26-RR-2 Guidelines for the Preservation of High-Traffic-Volume Roadways D. PESHKIN, K. L. SMITH, A. WOLTERS, AND J. KRSTULOVICH Applied Pavement Technology, Inc. Urbana, Illinois J. MOULTHROP AND C. ALVARADO Fugro Consultants, Inc. Austin, Texas TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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Subscriber Categories Highways Maintenance and Preservation Materials Pavements

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The Second Strategic Highway SHRP 2 Report S2-R26-RR-2 Research Program ISBN: 978-0-309-12892-6 America's highway system is critical to meeting the mobility Library of Congress Control Number: 2010942033 and economic needs of local communities, regions, and the na- tion. Developments in research and technology--such as ad- 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. vanced materials, communications technology, new data collection technologies, and human factors science--offer a new opportunity to improve the safety and reliability of this im- Copyright Information portant national resource. Breakthrough resolution of significant Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for ob- transportation problems, however, requires concentrated re- taining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright sources over a short time frame. Reflecting this need, the second to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) has an intense, The second Strategic Highway Research Program grants permission to reproduce large-scale focus, integrates multiple fields of research and tech- material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permis- sion is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to nology, and is fundamentally different from the broad, mission- imply TRB, AASHTO, or FHWA endorsement of a particular product, method, oriented, discipline-based research programs that have been the or practice. It is expected that those reproducing material in this document for educational and not-for-profit purposes will give appropriate acknowledgment mainstay of the highway research industry for half a century. of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the ma- terial, request permission from SHRP 2. The need for SHRP 2 was identified in TRB Special Report 260: Note: SHRP 2 report numbers convey the program, focus area, project number, and publication format. Report numbers ending in "w" are published as Web Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Documents only. Improving Quality of Life, published in 2001 and based on a study sponsored by Congress through the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). SHRP 2, modeled after the Notice first Strategic Highway Research Program, is a focused, time- The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the second Strategic Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board constrained, management-driven program designed to comple- with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. ment existing highway research programs. SHRP 2 focuses on The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to applied research in four focus areas: Safety, to prevent or reduce review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard the severity of highway crashes by understanding driver behav- for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical committee and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen ior; Renewal, to address the aging infrastructure through rapid by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of design and construction methods that cause minimal disrup- the National Research Council. tions and produce lasting facilities; Reliability, to reduce conges- The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the tion through incident reduction, management, response, and Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program mitigation; and Capacity, to integrate mobility, economic, envi- sponsors. ronmental, and community needs in the planning and designing The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National of new transportation capacity. Research Council, and the sponsors of the second Strategic Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of SHRP 2 was authorized in August 2005 as part of the Safe, Ac- the report. countable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). The program is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) on behalf of the Na- tional Research Council (NRC). SHRP 2 is conducted under a memorandum of understanding among the American Associa- tion of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Academy of Sciences, parent organization of TRB and NRC. The program provides for competitive, merit-based selection of re- SHRP 2 Reports search contractors; independent research project oversight; and Available by subscription and through the TRB online bookstore: dissemination of research results. www.TRB.org/bookstore Contact the TRB Business Office: 202-334-3213 More information about SHRP 2: www.TRB.org/SHRP2

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Insti- tute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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SHRP 2 STAFF Neil F. Hawks, Director Ann M. Brach, Deputy Director Kizzy Anderson, Senior Program Assistant, Implementation, Publications, and Communications Stephen Andrle, Chief Program Officer, Capacity James Bryant, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Mark Bush, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Kenneth Campbell, Chief Program Officer, Safety JoAnn Coleman, Senior Program Assistant, Capacity Walter Diewald, Senior Program Officer, Safety Jerry DiMaggio, Implementation Coordinator Charles Fay, Senior Program Officer, Safety Carol Ford, Senior Program Assistant, Safety Elizabeth Forney, Assistant Editor Jo Allen Gause, Senior Program Officer, Capacity Abdelmename Hedhli, Visiting Professional Ralph Hessian, Visiting Professional Andy Horosko, Special Consultant, Safety Field Data Collection William Hyman, Senior Program Officer, Reliability Linda Mason, Communications Officer Michael Miller, Senior Program Assistant, Reliability Gummada Murthy, Senior Program Officer, Reliability David Plazak, Senior Program Officer, Capacity and Reliability Robert Raab, International Coordinator Monica Starnes, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Noreen Stevenson-Fenwick, Senior Program Assistant, Renewal Chrystyne Talley, Financial Associate Charles Taylor, Special Consultant, Renewal Dean Trackman, Managing Editor Hans van Saan, Visiting Professional Pat Williams, Administrative Assistant Connie Woldu, Administrative Coordinator Patrick Zelinski, Communications Specialist ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration in cooperation with the American Associ- ation of State Highway and Transportation Officials. It was conducted in the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. The project was managed by James W. Bryant, Jr., Senior Program Officer for SHRP 2 Renewal. The research reported on herein was performed by Applied Pavement Technology, Inc., supported by Fugro Consultants, Inc., and consultants Dr. R. Gary Hicks, Gerry Eller, and Dean Testa. David Peshkin, Applied Pavement Technology, Inc., was the principal investigator. The other authors of this report are Kelly Smith, Angie Wolters, and James Krstulovich of Applied Pavement Technology, Inc., and Jim Moulthrop and Cesar Alvarado of Fugro Consultants, Inc. The authors also acknowledge the contributions to this research from Katie Zimmerman, Kurt Smith, and RoseMary Evans, all of Applied Pavement Technology, Inc. Finally, the research team acknowledges with appreciation the time and efforts of the many highway agencies (states, provinces, cities, toll authorities) who responded to the survey upon which much of this report is based.

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F O R E W O R D James W. Bryant, Jr., PhD, PE, SHRP 2 Senior Program Officer This research report documents the state of the practice for preservation treatment on asphalt and concrete pavements. Although the focus of the research project was on treat- ments suitable for application on high-volume roadways, this report also discusses current practices for low-volume roadways. The information presented is derived from a detailed survey of transportation agencies and a review of national and international literature. In addition, the report provides a general framework for how best practices are identified. Finally, general guidelines were developed on the application of preservation treatments on high-volume roadways. Presented as a separate document, the guidelines consider traf- fic volume, pavement condition, work-zone requirements, environmental conditions, and expected performance. For several years, pavement preservation has been an important strategy to extend the life of roadways. As transportation agencies grapple with decreased capital budgets, pavement preservation will continue to be an important strategy. Relatively small investments for preservation activities, if properly timed and applied, can increase infrastructure life signif- icantly. Several transportation agencies apply preservation strategies on lower-volume road- ways; however, the application of these strategies on high-volume roadways has lagged behind. The application of preservation strategies to high-traffic-volume roadways presents a complicated set of challenges. Many of the products and approaches that have been accepted for use on lower-traffic-volume roadways have not been accepted for use on high-traffic- volume roadways. Often, the use of a particular product or application has too great an impact on traffic, or the treatment has not been successfully applied under high-traffic condi- tions. The purpose of this report is to provide guidance for matching the pavement condition and other considerations more effectively with suitable treatments for high-traffic-volume roadways.

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C O N T E N T S 1 C H A P T E R 1 Introduction 1 Background 1 Purpose 2 Definitions 3 Organization of the Guide 4 CHAPTER 2 Factors Affecting Project and Treatment Selections for Pavement Preservation 4 Traffic Level 5 Pavement Condition 6 Climate/Environment 8 Work Zone Duration Restrictions 9 Expected Treatment Performance 12 Costs 15 C H A P T E R 3 Treatment Selection Process 15 Treatments for HMA-Surfaced Pavements 15 Treatments for PCC-Surfaced Pavements 15 Preservation Treatment Selection 17 Preliminary Identification of Feasible Preservation Treatments 19 Final Identification of Feasible Preservation Treatments 22 Treatment Cost-Effectiveness Analysis 28 Selection of the Preferred Preservation Treatment 31 References 32 Appendix A. Preservation Treatment Summaries 47 Appendix B. Examples of Identifying Feasible Preservation Treatments