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C H A P T E R 3 Treatment Selection Process Treatments for HMA-Surfaced Tables A-1 through A-9 in Appendix A contain one- to two- Pavements page technical summaries for most of these treatments. The summaries include treatment descriptions, the key pavement The following treatments are applicable for use on high- conditions they address, and construction and other consider- traffic-volume HMA-surfaced pavements: ations (including expected performance and estimated costs). They also provide a listing of reference materials that users can Crack fill. access to get up-to-date information on each treatment. Crack seal. Slurry seal (Type III). Microsurfacing. Treatments for PCC-Surfaced Chip seal: Pavements Single-course; The following treatments are applicable for use on high-volume Multiple-course; and PCC-surfaced pavements: Polymer-modified. Ultra-thin bonded wearing course. Concrete joint resealing. Thin HMA overlay (0.875 to 1.5 in.). Concrete crack sealing. Ultra-thin HMA overlay (0.5 to 0.75 in.). Diamond grinding. Cold milling and HMA overlay. Diamond grooving. Hot in-place recycling ( 2.0 in.): Partial-depth concrete pavement patching. Surface recycling followed by HMA overlay; Full-depth concrete pavement patching. Remixing followed by HMA overlay; and Dowel bar retrofitting. Repaving. Ultra-thin bonded wearing course. Cold in-place recycling (4.0 in.)--rural use only. Thin HMA overlay (0.875 to 1.5 in.). Profile milling. Drainage preservation. Ultra-thin whitetopping. Drainage preservation. Again, these treatments are generally considered suitable for both rural and urban roadways and for different climatic These treatments are generally considered suitable for both conditions, but some treatments may not be appropriate for rural and urban roadways and for different climatic conditions. all traffic and climate conditions. Technical summaries for However, some treatments may not be appropriate for all traf- most of these treatments are provided in Tables A-10 through fic and climatic conditions. A-14 in Appendix A. Hot in-place recycling is composed of the three basic tech- niques listed. While the latter two can be used in a preservation Preservation Treatment manner, they often are used in the context of major rehabilita- Selection tion. Surface recycling, on the other hand, is well representative of a preservation activity. Like the remixing and repaving tech- Selecting an appropriate preservation treatment for a given niques, cold in-place recycling can be used in a preservation pavement at a given time is not a simple process. It requires a manner but is frequently considered to be major rehabilitation. significant amount of information about the existing pavement, 15

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16 as well as the needs and constraints of the treatment to be per- tional and structural performance of the existing pavement formed. In addition, there are usually several possible solu- should first be established through condition surveys and/or tions that can be considered, each with unique advantages and the agency's pavement management system (PMS). The per- disadvantages. The process is further complicated when costs formance information should include both current and his- and cost-effectiveness are factored in. torical trends of overall condition (i.e., an aggregate/composite Figure 3.1 presents a sequential approach for evaluating pos- indicator of condition or serviceability); type, severity, and sible preservation treatments for an existing pavement and amount of individual distresses; and ride quality/smoothness identifying the preferred one. This approach is developed measurements. For pavements perceived as having possible specifically to address factors that are commonly considered safety or noise issues, surface friction test results, crash data, for high-traffic-volume roadways. In this approach, the func- and pavementtire noise data should also be compiled. Current and Historical Pavement Performance Data (from field surveys and testing and/or PMS database) Overall condition indicator (e.g., PCI, PCR) Individual distress types, severities, and extents Smoothness (e.g., IRI, PI, PSI/PSR) Historical Design, Construction, and M&R Data Surface and subsurface drainage characteristics Safety characteristics Pavement type and cross-sectional design Friction/texture (e.g., FN, MPD/MTD, IFI) Materials and as-built construction Crashes Maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) treatments Pavementtire noise (i.e., materials, thicknesses) Pavement Preservation Major Develop Feasible or Major Rehab Rehab Treatments Rehab? Pavement Preservation Preliminary Set of Feasible Preservation Treatments Assess Needs and Constraints of Project Performance Needs Construction Constraints Targeted/required performance Funding Expected performance of treatments Time of year of construction Existing pavement condition effects Geometrics (curves, intersections, Traffic effects (functional class and/or pavement markings/striping) traffic level) Work zone duration restrictions (i.e., Climate/environment effects facility downtime) Construction quality risk effects (agency Traffic accommodation and safety and contractor experience, materials Availability of qualified contractors and quality) quality materials Environmental considerations (e.g., emissions and air quality, recycling/ sustainability) Final Set of Feasible Preservation Treatments Selection of the Preferred Preservation Treatment Conduct cost-effectiveness analysis Benefit-cost analysis Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) Evaluate economic and noneconomic factors Figure 3.1. Process of selecting the preferred preservation treatment for high-traffic-volume roadways.