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2 many interacting factors, including proper project selection, Preventive Maintenance materials availability and quality, contractor capabilities, con- Preservation Good struction practices, and ambient conditions at the time of placement. Users interested in applying these guidelines to identify applications with which they do not currently have Reconstruction experience are encouraged to collect additional information Minor Rehab regarding the best practices of experienced users to achieve Major the best possible outcome. Rehab Rehabilitation Definitions Poor Routine/Corrective Maintenance The proper application of these guidelines depends in part on Time (years) an understanding of common terms used throughout the doc- Source: Adapted from Peshkin et al. 2007. ument. Terms such as "preservation" and "preventive main- tenance," as well as other terms related to their use, are often Figure 1.1. Relationship between pavement condition used inconsistently, fostering misconceptions about the appli- and different categories of pavement treatment. cability of pavements and the selection of treatments. There- fore, the definitions of relevant terms are presented in this in the early to middle years of a pavement's life, when section to provide a consistent interpretation of all information serviceability/ride quality issues become apparent. presented in the guidelines. Additional definitions of terms are Routine maintenance. Planned work that is performed on given in Appendix A. a routine basis to maintain and preserve the condition of the highway system or respond to specific conditions and Pavement preservation. A network-level, long-term strat- events that restore the highway system to an adequate level egy that enhances pavement performance by using an inte- of service (Geiger 2005). Crack filling and sealing and grated, cost-effective set of practices to extend pavement drainage maintenance are preservation activities that can life, improve safety, and meet motorist expectations (Geiger be classified as routine maintenance. These and other rou- 2005). Pavement preservation programs normally include tine maintenance activities are often performed through- a combination of preventive maintenance, minor rehabil- out a pavement's life, as indicated by Figure 1.1. itation, and routine maintenance work. However, the major- Corrective maintenance. Maintenance activities per- ity of work under typical pavement preservation programs formed in response to the development of a deficiency(ies) is focused on preventive maintenance. that negatively impacts the safe, efficient operations of the Preventive maintenance. A planned strategy of cost-effective facility and future integrity of the pavement sections (Geiger treatments applied to an existing roadway system and its 2005). Corrective maintenance (sometimes referred to as appurtenances that preserves the system, retards future reactionary maintenance) is usually performed to fix a local- deterioration, and maintains or improves the functional ized defect(s) due to unforeseen conditions and restore a condition of the system (without significantly increasing pavement to an acceptable level of service. Example activities the structural capacity) (Geiger 2005). As illustrated in Fig- include pothole patching and concrete slab replacements. ure 1.1, preventive maintenance activities are performed in Corrective maintenance can be performed throughout a the early years of a pavement's life, before the onset of sig- pavement's life, as indicated by Figure 1.1. nificant structural deterioration. Example activities include Major rehabilitation. Structural enhancements that crack sealing and filling, joint resealing, slurry seals, and extend the service life of an existing pavement or improve chip seals. its load-carrying capability or both (Geiger 2005). Minor rehabilitation. Nonstructural enhancements (e.g., Reconstruction. Replacement of the entire existing pave- thin hot-mix asphalt [HMA] overlay, mill and thin HMA ment structure with the equivalent or increased pavement overlay) made to an existing pavement section to either structure. Reconstruction usually requires the complete eliminate age-related, top-down surface cracking that devel- removal and replacement of the existing pavement struc- ops in flexible pavements due to environmental exposure ture. It may incorporate either new or recycled materials. or to restore functionality of concrete pavements. Because Reconstruction is required when a pavement has either of the nonstructural nature of minor rehabilitation tech- failed or has become functionally obsolete (Geiger 2005). niques, these types of rehabilitation techniques are placed High-traffic-volume roadway. These are rural roadways in the category of pavement preservation (Geiger 2005). As with ADT values greater than 5,000 vpd and urban road- shown in Figure 1.1, minor rehabilitation generally occurs ways with ADT values greater than 10,000 vpd.