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3 Surface type. The type of pavement on the top or surface these. Distresses can be further divided into two broad cat- of a pavement structure. For this study, the preservation egories, functional and structural: approaches developed for high-traffic-volume roadways Functional distress. Deterioration that affects the abil- provide options for both HMA and portland cement con- ity of the pavement to provide a safe, smooth, and quiet crete (PCC) surface types. HMA-surfaced pavements include surface for driving. Most functional problems can be HMA on granular or stabilized base and HMA on PCC corrected with preservation treatments if there is no base (i.e., composite pavement). PCC-surfaced pavements serious underlying structural problem. include jointed plain concrete (JPC), jointed reinforced con- Structural distress. Deterioration caused by excessive crete (JRC), and continuously reinforced concrete (CRC) loading, insufficient thickness, or lack of structural sup- pavements. port. Pavements with considerable structural distress are Treatment type. A specific work activity performed on a not good candidates for preservation treatments. roadway pavement that is intended to treat one or more of the pavement's deficiencies. Examples include crack seal- Organization of the Guide ing, thin HMA overlay applications, and diamond grind- ing. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be This guide consists of three chapters and two appendixes. Fol- needed to treat existing deficiencies lowing this introductory chapter, Chapter 2 discusses some Treatment category. A group of treatments with similar key factors that affect the selection of a pavement-preservation overall objectives and applied at similar times (Figure 1.1). project and treatment, including traffic level, existing pave- For example, as described, preventive maintenance treat- ment condition, climatic condition, available work hours, and ments are intended to preserve pavement integrity and treatment performance and cost. Chapter 3 presents the treat- prevent or retard future pavement deterioration. Other ment selection process, beginning with the identification of treatment categories include routine maintenance, minor candidate treatments and ending with the treatment selection rehabilitation, major rehabilitation, and reconstruction. based on various economic (including cost-effectiveness) and Distresses. Visible indicators of pavement deterioration noneconomic factors. Appendix A contains one- to two-page caused by factors such as load, environment, construction technical summaries for the various preservation treatments. practices, materials, support conditions, design practices, Appendix B provides two example exercises intended to illus- or, most commonly, a combination of two or more of trate certain portions of the treatment selection process.