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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 691 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Mix Design Practices for Warm Mix Asphalt

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of March 2011.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 691 Mix Design Practices for Warm Mix Asphalt Ramon Bonaquist ADVANCED ASPHALT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC Sterling, VA Subscriber Categories Highways Materials Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 691 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 09-43 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-15559-5 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2011927069 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 691 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Edward T. Harrigan, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 09-43 PANEL Field of Materials and Construction--Area of Bituminous Materials Dean A. Maurer, Practical Asphalt Solutions Technology, Lewisberry, PA (Chair) David B. Powers, Ohio DOT, Columbus, OH Cathrina Barros, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Timothy R. Clyne, Minnesota DOT, Maplewood, MN Gerald Huber, Heritage Research Group, Indianapolis, IN Larry L. Michael, Consultant, Hagerstown, MD Jorge A. Prozzi, University of Texas - Austin, Austin, TX Todd W. Whittington, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh, NC Matthew Corrigan, FHWA Liaison David E. Newcomb, National Asphalt Pavement Association Liaison Frederick Hejl, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 09-43 by Advanced Asphalt Technolo- gies, LLC. Ramon Bonaquist, Chief Operating Officer for Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC, served as Principal Investigator for the project and authored this report. The Western Research Institute (WRI), Qual- ity Engineering Solutions, Inc. (QES), the University of MassachusettsDartmouth (UMassDartmouth), and the University of WisconsinMadison (UWM) assisted as subcontractors on the project. Mr. Troy Pauli, Mr. Dennis Morian, Dr. Walaa Mogawer, and Mr. Andrew Hanz led the efforts of WRI, QES, UMass Dartmouth, and UWM, respectively. The Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Mobile Asphalt Laboratory, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, McConnaughay Technologies, Glenn O. Hawbaker, Inc., and Boggs Paving provided important data that were analyzed as part of this research project. The research team acknowledges the assistance provided by the agencies where field samples were col- lected, including the Colorado Department of Transportation, New York Department of Transportation, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, and West- ern Federal Lands Highway Division of the FHWA.

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FOREWORD By Edward T. Harrigan Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report presents a mix design method tailored to the unique material properties of warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies. The report will be of immediate interest to mate- rials engineers in state highway agencies and industry. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) refers to asphalt concrete mixtures that are produced at tem- peratures approximately 50F (28C) or more cooler than typically used in the production of hot mix asphalt (HMA). The goal of WMA is to produce mixtures with similar strength, dura- bility, and performance characteristics as HMA using substantially reduced production tem- peratures. There are important environmental and health benefits associated with reduced production temperatures including lower greenhouse gas emissions, lower fuel consumption, and reduced exposure of workers to asphalt fumes. Lower production temperatures can also potentially improve pavement performance by reducing binder aging, providing added time for mixture compaction, and allowing improved compaction during cold weather paving. For most WMA projects constructed in the United States to date, WMA has been substi- tuted into a mixture designed as HMA with no change to the job mix formula. An issue important to extending the implementation of WMA in the future is the lack of a formal mix design method for mixtures prepared with the wide variety of WMA technologies avail- able now and in the future. The objective of this project was to develop a mix design method for WMA in the form of a draft AASHTO recommended practice for use by engineers and technicians in the public and private sectors. This method was (1) to be based on Superpave mix design methodology, (2) to include a suite of performance tests to assess whether a WMA mix design will provide satisfactory field service, and (3) to be applicable to any WMA technology used to lower mixing and compaction temperatures. The report fully documents the research leading to the key finding that a stand-alone WMA mix design method distinct from that for HMA is not warranted. Instead, the final product of the research is a draft recommended appendix to AASHTO R 35, Standard Practice for Superpave Volumetric Design for Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), titled Special Mixture Design Considerations and Methods for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA). This recommended appendix was developed and validated with the results of an extensive program of laboratory and field testing on a wide range of WMA technologies. In addition to this appendix, the contractor produced (1) a draft practice for measuring WMA properties for use in performance analy- ses with the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide, (2) a chapter on WMA mix design for inclusion in the mix design manual produced in NCHRP Project 09-33, "A Mix Design Manual for Hot Mix Asphalt," and (3) materials and media for a 1-day training course on WMA mix design.

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The contractor's final report for NCHRP Project 09-43 includes the following appendices: Appendix A: Draft Appendix to AASHTO R 35: Special Mixture Design Considerations and Methods for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Appendix B: Commentary to the Draft Appendix to AASHTO R 35 Appendix C: Training Materials for the Draft Appendix to AASHTO R 35 Appendix D: Proposed Standard Practice for Measuring Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Performance Analysis Using the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Software Appendix E: NCHRP Project 09-43 Experimental Plans, Results, and Analyses Appendices A, B, and D are published herein. Appendices C and E are available on the TRB website at www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/165013.aspx.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Introduction 5 1.1 Background 7 1.2 Problem Statement and Objective 8 Chapter 2 Research Approach 8 2.1 Overview 8 2.2 Differences Between the Design of WMA and HMA 10 2.3 Preliminary WMA Mixture Design and Analysis Procedure 12 2.4 Phase I Laboratory Studies 17 2.5 Revised Preliminary Mixture Design Procedure 17 2.6 Phase II Studies 22 2.7 Draft Standards for WMA 23 Chapter 3 Findings and Applications 23 3.1 Phase I Findings 33 3.2 Preliminary Mixture Design Procedure Revisions 34 3.3 Phase II Findings 54 3.4 Draft AASHTO Standards 60 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Recommendations 60 4.1 Conclusions 62 4.2 Recommendations 64 References 66 Appendix A Draft Appendix to AASHTO R 35: Special Mixture Design Considerations and Methods for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) 83 Appendix B Commentary to the Draft Appendix to AASHTO R 35 93 Appendix D Proposed Standard Practice for Measuring Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Performance Analysis Using the Mechanistic- Empirical Pavement Design Guide Software 101 Unpublished Material Appendices C and E