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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 684 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Enhancing Internal Trip Capture Estimation for Mixed-Use Developments

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of March 2011.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 684 Enhancing Internal Trip Capture Estimation for Mixed-Use Developments Brian S. Bochner TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE College Station, TX Kevin Hooper KEVIN HOOPER ASSOCIATES College Station, TX Benjamin Sperry TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE College Station, TX AND Robert Dunphy URBAN LAND INSTITUTE Washington, DC Subscriber Categories Highways Planning and Forecasting Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 684 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 08-51 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-15558-8 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2011926857 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 684 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christopher Hedges, Senior Program Officer Danna Powell, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Andra Briere, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 08-51 PANEL Field of Transportation Planning--Area of Forecasting Jerome M. Lutin, Holland, PA (Chair) Thomas W. Brahms, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC Christopher R. Conklin, Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc., Watertown, MA Michael J. Connors, Connecticut DOT, Newington, CT Matthew C. Grimes, Virginia DOT, Charlottesville, VA Steven A. Smith, San Bernardino Associated Governments, San Bernardino, CA Ruth L. Steiner, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL John V. Thomas, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC Kimberly Fisher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research project reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 8-51 by the Texas Trans- portation Institute in association with Kevin Hooper Associates and the Urban Land Institute. The Texas Transportation Institute served as prime contractor. Brian Bochner, P.E., P.T.O.E., and P.T.P., of the Texas Transportation Institute served as project direc- tor and principal investigator. Kevin Hooper of Kevin Hooper Associates, Ben Sperry of the Texas Trans- portation Institute, and Robert Dunphy of the Urban Land Institute also performed major roles in this project. Laura Higgins of the Texas Transportation Institute assisted in the data collection. The research team wishes to thank the organizations that provided permission to conduct surveys at their mixed-use developments including Capstar Commercial Services (Mockingbird Station), Lanier Parking Systems (Atlantic Station), and Trammel Crow Company along with Marriott Legacy Center Hotel, Carr America, and Lincoln Property Company (Legacy Town Center). The researchers also thank Pro Staff and Kelly Services for providing temporary personnel to serve as survey crew members in the three areas. The researchers also thank the Institute of Transportation Engineers for data from their sur- vey of practitioners on internal capture estimation practices as well of data from the Institute's files.

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FOREWORD By Christopher Hedges Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report provides an improved methodology to estimate how many internal trips will be generated in mixed-use developments--trips for which both the origin and destination are within the development. The methodology estimates morning and afternoon peak period trips to and from six specific land use categories: office, retail, restaurant, residential, cinema, and hotel. The research team analyzed existing data from prior surveys and col- lected new data at three mixed-use development sites. The resulting methodology is incor- porated into a spreadsheet model, which can be downloaded from the TRB website at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/165014.aspx. The report includes recommendations for modification of existing Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) procedures in the Trip Generation Handbook. This report will be valuable to transportation agency planners and developers who need to provide or fund facilities that meet the transportation demand gen- erated by new developments. As new development places increasing demands on the transportation system, commu- nity leaders, land use planners, developers, and transportation agency administrators need techniques to enable them to reliably estimate the number of net vehicle and person trips that will be generated by new or infill mixed-use development. For site impact analysis purposes, an internal capture rate that is set too low may unfairly penalize developers by making them pay more than their fair share of costs for transporta- tion mitigation measures. Conversely, an internal capture rate that is set too high may unfairly place this burden on the public. Both cases may result in sub-optimal build-out, particularly in urban areas. Since the internal capture rate used for a given mixed-use development can be politically contentious, empirical observations are needed to provide professional guidance for better estimating these impacts. By improving the methods for estimating internal capture, the process of determining developers' responsibilities for mitigating transportation impacts of mixed-use development will become more equitable, transparent, and open. The ITE's Trip Generation Handbook has established a procedure for estimating multi- use trip generation; however, the existing framework is based on a limited set of data. ITE advises those estimating transportation impacts of mixed-use developments to "collect additional data if possible." Consequently, when considering potential transportation impacts of proposed mixed-use developments, local and state transportation planners lack a comprehensive, credible data set that can be used to confirm or deny the soundness of proposed internal capture estimates. Under NCHRP Project 08-51, a research team led by the Texas Transportation Institute developed a methodology to provide an improved estimate of internal trips generated in

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mixed-use developments. After an analysis of existing data from previous studies, the research team conducted and analyzed traffic counts and interviews at sites in Dallas, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; and Plano, Texas. The team developed a classification system for mixed- use developments, an improved methodology for estimating internal trip capture, a data- collection framework and methodology, and a spreadsheet estimation tool to facilitate application of the internal trip capture methodology. Procedures were also provided to enable practitioners to collect and add more data to the database, which has been provided to ITE.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 7 Chapter 1 Introduction 7 Background 7 Problem Statement 8 Scope of Study 8 Past Research and Practice 19 Other Related Findings 22 Current Practice 25 Trip Capture Variables 25 Summary 26 Conclusions 28 Chapter 2 Research Approach 30 Chapter 3 Findings and Applications 30 Pilot Study Surveys 30 Mockingbird Station 41 Atlantic Station 53 Legacy Town Center 62 Florida Survey Data 63 Country Isles 68 Village Commons 72 Boca Del Mar 78 Comparison of Findings for Pilot Study Sites and Florida Sites 78 Similarities and Differences Among the Developments 78 Internal Trip-Making 83 Conclusions 87 Proximity Effects 90 Procedure for Estimating Internal Capture at a Proposed MXD 96 Step 1: Determine Whether the Methodology Is Appropriate for Your Application 96 Step 2: Define the Pertinent Site Characteristics 97 Step 3: Calculate Single-Use Trip Generation for the Site Components 98 Step 4: Estimate the Unconstrained Internal Capture Rates for All Land Use Pairs at the Site 99 Step 5: Calculate the Balanced Internal Trips between All Land Use Pairs 100 Step 6: Calculate the Overall Internal Capture Rate for the Site 100 Reminder 100 Additional Guidance 103 Validation of Estimation Procedure

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104 Chapter 4 Conclusions, Recommendations, and Suggested Research 104 Existing Practice 105 Available Data 105 Internal Capture Estimation Methodology 105 Expanded ITE Methodology 105 Suggested Modifications to Existing ITE Procedures 106 Data-Collection Methodology 106 Recommended Changes to the Procedures Used in This Project 106 Lessons Learned 107 Suggested Research 107 Application in Practice 107 Estimation Methodology and Data-Collection Framework 107 User Instructions and Cautions 108 Request for Additional Data 109 References A-1 Appendix A Trends in Mixed-Use Development B-1 Appendix B Land Use Classification System C-1 Appendix C Procedures for Internal Capture Surveys D-1 Appendix D Pilot Survey Experiences and Lessons Learned E-1 Appendix E Florida Survey Questionnaires F-1 Appendix F Validation of Estimation Procedure Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.